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Article

CLOCK Polymorphisms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Further Evidence Linking Sleep and Circadian Disturbances and ADHD

1
Federal University of Pelotas, Post-Graduate Program in Epidemiology, Pelotas 96020-220, Brazil
2
Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Department of Genetics, Porto Alegre 915010-970, Brazil
3
Universidade de Sao Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina FMUSP, Department of Psychiatry, Sao Paulo 05403-903, Brasil
4
University of Texas Health Sciences Center at Houston, Houston, TX 75457, USA
5
Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Department of Psychiatry, Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Unit, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre 90035-007, Brazil
6
Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Post-graduate Program in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Porto Alegre 90035-007, Brazil
7
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biociências, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre 90050-170, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2019, 10(2), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10020088
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 20 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Epidemiology of Complex Diseases in Latin America)
Circadian and sleep disorders, short sleep duration, and evening chronotype are often present in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). CLOCK, considered the master gene in the circadian rhythm, has been explored by few studies. Understanding the relationship between ADHD and CLOCK may provide additional information to understand the correlation between ADHD and sleep problems. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between ADHD and CLOCK, using several genetic markers to comprehensively cover the gene extension. A total of 259 ADHD children and their parents from a Brazilian clinical sample were genotyped for eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CLOCK locus. We tested the individual markers and the haplotype effects using binary logistic regression. Binary logistic and linear regressions considering ADHD symptoms among ADHD cases were conducted as secondary analysis. As main result, the analysis showed a risk effect of the G-A-T-G-G-C-G-A (rs534654, rs1801260, rs6855837, rs34897046, rs11931061, rs3817444, rs4864548, rs726967) haplotype on ADHD. A suggestive association between ADHD and rs534654 was observed. The results suggest that the genetic susceptibility to circadian rhythm attributed to the CLOCK gene may play an important role on ADHD. View Full-Text
Keywords: CLOCK gene; ADHD; circadian rhythm; sleep problem; inattention symptoms; genetic; complex diseases; Latin America CLOCK gene; ADHD; circadian rhythm; sleep problem; inattention symptoms; genetic; complex diseases; Latin America
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MDPI and ACS Style

Carpena, M.X.; Hutz, M.H.; Salatino-Oliveira, A.; Polanczyk, G.V.; Zeni, C.; Schmitz, M.; Chazan, R.; Genro, J.P.; Rohde, L.A.; Tovo-Rodrigues, L. CLOCK Polymorphisms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Further Evidence Linking Sleep and Circadian Disturbances and ADHD. Genes 2019, 10, 88. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10020088

AMA Style

Carpena MX, Hutz MH, Salatino-Oliveira A, Polanczyk GV, Zeni C, Schmitz M, Chazan R, Genro JP, Rohde LA, Tovo-Rodrigues L. CLOCK Polymorphisms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Further Evidence Linking Sleep and Circadian Disturbances and ADHD. Genes. 2019; 10(2):88. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10020088

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carpena, Marina X.; Hutz, Mara H.; Salatino-Oliveira, Angélica; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Zeni, Cristian; Schmitz, Marcelo; Chazan, Rodrigo; Genro, Julia P.; Rohde, Luis A.; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana. 2019. "CLOCK Polymorphisms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Further Evidence Linking Sleep and Circadian Disturbances and ADHD" Genes 10, no. 2: 88. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10020088

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