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Review

ER Stress-Induced Secretion of Proteins and Their Extracellular Functions in the Heart

1
Department of Internal Medicine III (Cardiology, Angiology, and Pneumology), Heidelberg University Hospital, Im Neuenheimer Feld 669, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
2
DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Heidelberg/Mannheim, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2020, 9(9), 2066; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9092066
Received: 5 August 2020 / Revised: 2 September 2020 / Accepted: 3 September 2020 / Published: 10 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Proteostasis Derailment in Cardiac Diseases)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a result of conditions that imbalance protein homeostasis or proteostasis at the ER, for example ischemia, and is a common event in various human pathologies, including the diseased heart. Cardiac integrity and function depend on the active secretion of mature proteins from a variety of cell types in the heart, a process that requires an intact ER environment for efficient protein folding and trafficking to the secretory pathway. As a consequence of ER stress, most protein secretion by the ER secretory pathway is decreased. Strikingly, there is a select group of proteins that are secreted in greater quantities during ER stress. ER stress resulting from the dysregulation of ER Ca2+ levels, for instance, stimulates the secretion of Ca2+-binding ER chaperones, especially GRP78, GRP94, calreticulin, and mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF), which play a multitude of roles outside the cell, strongly depending on the cell type and tissue. Here we review current insights in ER stress-induced secretion of proteins, particularly from the heart, and highlight the extracellular functions of these proteins, ranging from the augmentation of cardiac cell viability to the modulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic, oncogenic, and immune-stimulatory cell signaling, cell invasion, extracellular proteostasis, and more. Many of the roles of ER stress-induced protein secretion remain to be explored in the heart. This article is part of a special issue entitled “The Role of Proteostasis Derailment in Cardiac Diseases.” View Full-Text
Keywords: protein secretion; ER stress; unfolded protein response (UPR); proteostasis; secreted ER chaperones; cell signaling; cardiokines; cardiac myocytes protein secretion; ER stress; unfolded protein response (UPR); proteostasis; secreted ER chaperones; cell signaling; cardiokines; cardiac myocytes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Meyer, B.A.; Doroudgar, S. ER Stress-Induced Secretion of Proteins and Their Extracellular Functions in the Heart. Cells 2020, 9, 2066. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9092066

AMA Style

Meyer BA, Doroudgar S. ER Stress-Induced Secretion of Proteins and Their Extracellular Functions in the Heart. Cells. 2020; 9(9):2066. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9092066

Chicago/Turabian Style

Meyer, Bianca A., and Shirin Doroudgar. 2020. "ER Stress-Induced Secretion of Proteins and Their Extracellular Functions in the Heart" Cells 9, no. 9: 2066. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9092066

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