The duplication cycle is the fascinating process that, starting from a cell, results in the formation of two daughter cells and it is essential for life. Cytokinesis is the final step of the cell cycle, it is a very complex phase, and is a concert of forces, remodeling, trafficking, and cell signaling. All of the steps of cell division must be properly coordinated with each other to faithfully segregate the genetic material and this task is fundamental for generating viable cells. Given the importance of this process, molecular pathways and proteins that are involved in cytokinesis are conserved from yeast to humans. In this review, we describe symmetric and asymmetric cell division in animal cell and in a model organism, budding yeast. In addition, we illustrate the surveillance mechanisms that ensure a proper cell division and discuss the connections with normal cell proliferation and organs development and with the occurrence of human diseases.
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