Current and Future Trends on Diagnosis and Prognosis of Glioblastoma: From Molecular Biology to Proteomics
N. I. Pirogov Russian National Medical University, Russian Federal Ministry of Health, 117997 Moscow, Russia
Federal State Institution V. P. Serbsky Federal Medical Research Center of Psychiatry and Narcology National Scientific Research Center on Addictions of the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation, 119002 Moscow, Russia
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnlogical Sciences, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
Research Center for Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
Department of Fundamental and Applied Neurobiology, Serbsky National Research Center for Social and Forensic Psychiatry, Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation, 119034 Moscow, Russia
Laboratory of Anatomy-Histology-Embryology, Medical School of Heraklion, University of Crete, Voutes, 71110 Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education I.M. Sechenov, First Moscow State Medical University of the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation (Sechenov University), 119048 Moscow, Russia
Institute of Cancer Therapeutics, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire BD7 1DP, UK
Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of Crete, 71110 Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Department of Neurology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
Centre of Toxicology Science and Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Greece
Department of Analytical Toxicology, Sechenov University, 119048 Moscow, Russia
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contribute equally to this work.
Cells 2019, 8(8), 863; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8080863
Received: 5 July 2019 / Revised: 2 August 2019 / Accepted: 6 August 2019 / Published: 9 August 2019
Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive malignant tumor of the central nervous system. Due to the absence of effective pharmacological and surgical treatments, the identification of early diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers is of key importance to improve the survival rate of patients and to develop new personalized treatments. On these bases, the aim of this review article is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the application of molecular biology and proteomics techniques for the identification of novel biomarkers through the analysis of different biological samples obtained from glioblastoma patients, including DNA, microRNAs, proteins, small molecules, circulating tumor cells, extracellular vesicles, etc. Both benefits and pitfalls of molecular biology and proteomics analyses are discussed, including the different mass spectrometry-based analytical techniques, highlighting how these investigation strategies are powerful tools to study the biology of glioblastoma, as well as to develop advanced methods for the management of this pathology.