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Androgen Receptor-Activated Enhancers Simultaneously Regulate Oncogene TMPRSS2 and lncRNA PRCAT38 in Prostate Cancer

Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041, China
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Cells 2019, 8(8), 864; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8080864
Received: 10 June 2019 / Revised: 4 August 2019 / Accepted: 6 August 2019 / Published: 9 August 2019
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Abstract

Prostate cancer is a common carcinoma in males, the development of which involves the androgen receptor (AR) as a key regulator. AR transactivation induces the high expression of androgen-regulated genes, including transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and long noncoding RNA prostate cancer-associated transcript 38 (PRCAT38). PRCAT38 and TMPRSS2 are both located on chromosome 21, separated by a series of enhancers. PRCAT38 is a prostate-specific long noncoding RNA that is highly expressed in cancer tissue as compared to normal tissue. Here, we show chromatin looping by enhancers E1 and E2 with the promoters for PRCAT38 and TMPRSS2, indicating the co-regulation of PRCAT38 and TMPRSS2 by the same enhancers. The knockout of enhancer E1 or E2 simultaneously impaired the transcription of PRCAT38 and TMPRSS2 and inhibited cell growth and migration. Moreover, the loop formation and enhancer activity were mediated by AR/FOXA1 binding and the activity of acetyltransferase p300. Our findings demonstrate the utilization of shared enhancers in the joint regulation of two oncogenes in prostate cancer cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: TMPRSS2; PRCAT38; enhancer; chromatin looping TMPRSS2; PRCAT38; enhancer; chromatin looping
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Chen, Z.; Song, X.; Li, Q.; Xie, L.; Guo, T.; Su, T.; Tang, C.; Chang, X.; Liang, B.; Huang, D. Androgen Receptor-Activated Enhancers Simultaneously Regulate Oncogene TMPRSS2 and lncRNA PRCAT38 in Prostate Cancer. Cells 2019, 8, 864.

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