Next Article in Journal
Calcitriol Attenuates Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction and Inhibits Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Mice
Previous Article in Journal
Current and Future Trends on Diagnosis and Prognosis of Glioblastoma: From Molecular Biology to Proteomics
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Androgen Receptor-Activated Enhancers Simultaneously Regulate Oncogene TMPRSS2 and lncRNA PRCAT38 in Prostate Cancer

Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(8), 864;
Received: 10 June 2019 / Revised: 4 August 2019 / Accepted: 6 August 2019 / Published: 9 August 2019
PDF [2802 KB, uploaded 16 August 2019]


Prostate cancer is a common carcinoma in males, the development of which involves the androgen receptor (AR) as a key regulator. AR transactivation induces the high expression of androgen-regulated genes, including transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and long noncoding RNA prostate cancer-associated transcript 38 (PRCAT38). PRCAT38 and TMPRSS2 are both located on chromosome 21, separated by a series of enhancers. PRCAT38 is a prostate-specific long noncoding RNA that is highly expressed in cancer tissue as compared to normal tissue. Here, we show chromatin looping by enhancers E1 and E2 with the promoters for PRCAT38 and TMPRSS2, indicating the co-regulation of PRCAT38 and TMPRSS2 by the same enhancers. The knockout of enhancer E1 or E2 simultaneously impaired the transcription of PRCAT38 and TMPRSS2 and inhibited cell growth and migration. Moreover, the loop formation and enhancer activity were mediated by AR/FOXA1 binding and the activity of acetyltransferase p300. Our findings demonstrate the utilization of shared enhancers in the joint regulation of two oncogenes in prostate cancer cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: TMPRSS2; PRCAT38; enhancer; chromatin looping TMPRSS2; PRCAT38; enhancer; chromatin looping

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, Z.; Song, X.; Li, Q.; Xie, L.; Guo, T.; Su, T.; Tang, C.; Chang, X.; Liang, B.; Huang, D. Androgen Receptor-Activated Enhancers Simultaneously Regulate Oncogene TMPRSS2 and lncRNA PRCAT38 in Prostate Cancer. Cells 2019, 8, 864.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Cells EISSN 2073-4409 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top