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Nucleolar and Ribosomal DNA Structure under Stress: Yeast Lessons for Aging and Cancer

1
Unidad de Investigación, Hospital Universitario Nuestra Señora de Candelaria, 38010 Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
2
Escuela de Doctorado y Estudios de Postgrado, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 Tenerife, Spain
3
Instituto de Tecnologías Biomédicas, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 Tenerife, Spain
4
Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Fernando Pessoa Canarias, 35450 Santa María de Guía, Gran Canaria, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(8), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8080779
Received: 24 June 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 24 July 2019 / Published: 26 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nucleolar Organization and Functions in Health and Disease)
Once thought a mere ribosome factory, the nucleolus has been viewed in recent years as an extremely sensitive gauge of diverse cellular stresses. Emerging concepts in nucleolar biology include the nucleolar stress response (NSR), whereby a series of cell insults have a special impact on the nucleolus. These insults include, among others, ultra-violet radiation (UV), nutrient deprivation, hypoxia and thermal stress. While these stresses might influence nucleolar biology directly or indirectly, other perturbances whose origin resides in the nucleolar biology also trigger nucleolar and systemic stress responses. Among the latter, we find mutations in nucleolar and ribosomal proteins, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing inhibitors and ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription inhibition. The p53 protein also mediates NSR, leading ultimately to cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, senescence or differentiation. Hence, NSR is gaining importance in cancer biology. The nucleolar size and ribosome biogenesis, and how they connect with the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signalling pathway, are also becoming important in the biology of aging and cancer. Simple model organisms like the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, easy to manipulate genetically, are useful in order to study nucleolar and rDNA structure and their relationship with stress. In this review, we summarize the most important findings related to this topic. View Full-Text
Keywords: yeast nucleolus; yeast rDNA; nucleolar stress; TORC1; ribosome biogenesis; sirtuins; nucleolar condensation; aging; cancer yeast nucleolus; yeast rDNA; nucleolar stress; TORC1; ribosome biogenesis; sirtuins; nucleolar condensation; aging; cancer
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Matos-Perdomo, E.; Machín, F. Nucleolar and Ribosomal DNA Structure under Stress: Yeast Lessons for Aging and Cancer. Cells 2019, 8, 779.

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