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Open AccessReview

Roles of Toll-Like Receptors in Nitroxidative Stress in Mammals

by Yao Li 1,†, Shou-Long Deng 2,†, Zheng-Xing Lian 1,* and Kun Yu 1,*
1
Beijing Key Laboratory for Animal Genetic Improvement, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics and Breeding of the Ministry of Agriculture, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
2
CAS Key Laboratory of Genome Sciences and Information, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Cells 2019, 8(6), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8060576
Received: 3 May 2019 / Revised: 8 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
Free radicals are important antimicrobial effectors that cause damage to DNA, membrane lipids, and proteins. Professional phagocytes produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that contribute towards the destruction of pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a fundamental role in the innate immune response and respond to conserved microbial products and endogenous molecules resulting from cellular damage to elicit an effective defense against invading pathogens, tissue injury, or cancer. In recent years, several studies have focused on how the TLR-mediated activation of innate immune cells leads to the production of pro-inflammatory factors upon pathogen invasion. Here, we review recent findings that indicate that TLRs trigger a signaling cascade that induces the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. View Full-Text
Keywords: free radicals; antimicrobial; toll-like receptors free radicals; antimicrobial; toll-like receptors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Y.; Deng, S.-L.; Lian, Z.-X.; Yu, K. Roles of Toll-Like Receptors in Nitroxidative Stress in Mammals. Cells 2019, 8, 576.

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