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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Recent Data on Cellular Component Turnover: Focus on Adaptations to Physical Exercise

1
Laboratoire Européen Performance Santé Altitude, EA4604, University of Perpignan Via Domitia, Faculty of Sports Sciences, F-66120 Font-Romeu, France
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Université de Montpellier, INRA, UMR866 Dynamique Musculaire et Métabolisme, F-34060 Montpellier, France
3
INRA, UMR866 Dynamique Musculaire et Métabolisme, F-34060 Montpellier, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(6), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8060542
Received: 15 May 2019 / Revised: 31 May 2019 / Accepted: 2 June 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autophagy in Tissue Injury and Homeostasis)
Significant progress has expanded our knowledge of the signaling pathways coordinating muscle protein turnover during various conditions including exercise. In this manuscript, the multiple mechanisms that govern the turnover of cellular components are reviewed, and their overall roles in adaptations to exercise training are discussed. Recent studies have highlighted the central role of the energy sensor (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), forkhead box class O subfamily protein (FOXO) transcription factors and the kinase mechanistic (or mammalian) target of rapamycin complex (MTOR) in the regulation of autophagy for organelle maintenance during exercise. A new cellular trafficking involving the lysosome was also revealed for full activation of MTOR and protein synthesis during recovery. Other emerging candidates have been found to be relevant in organelle turnover, especially Parkin and the mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (Mul1) pathways for mitochondrial turnover, and the glycerolipids diacylglycerol (DAG) for protein translation and FOXO regulation. Recent experiments with autophagy and mitophagy flux assessment have also provided important insights concerning mitochondrial turnover during ageing and chronic exercise. However, data in humans are often controversial and further investigations are needed to clarify the involvement of autophagy in exercise performed with additional stresses, such as hypoxia, and to understand the influence of exercise modality. Improving our knowledge of these pathways should help develop therapeutic ways to counteract muscle disorders in pathological conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: autophagy; mitophagy; mitochondria; exercise; AMPK; FOXO; MTOR; parkin autophagy; mitophagy; mitochondria; exercise; AMPK; FOXO; MTOR; parkin
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Sanchez, A.M.; Candau, R.; Bernardi, H. Recent Data on Cellular Component Turnover: Focus on Adaptations to Physical Exercise. Cells 2019, 8, 542.

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