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Controlling Gut Inflammation by Restoring Anti-Inflammatory Pathways in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

First Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pavia and Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, 27100 Pavia, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(5), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050397
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 24 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 30 April 2019
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Abstract

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is caused by a dysregulated immune response against normal components of the intestinal microflora combined with defective functioning of anti-inflammatory pathways. Currently, all therapies approved for IBD manipulate the immune system by inhibiting pro-inflammatory mechanisms, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, gut-homing α4β7 integrin, interleukin-12/interleukin-23, and Janus kinases. However, some IBD patients are non-responders to these drugs, which are also associated with serious side effects. Thus, it has been hypothesized that therapies aimed at restoring anti-inflammatory signals, by exploiting the tolerogenic potential of cytokines (interleukin-10, transforming growth factor-β, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor), immune cells (regulatory T cells, tolerogenic dendritic cells), or mesenchymal stem cells, might offer promising results in terms of clinical efficacy with fewer side effects. In this review, we provide new insights into putative novel treatments aimed at restoring anti-inflammatory signaling pathways in IBD. View Full-Text
Keywords: Crohn’s disease; granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor; interleukin-10; mesenchymal stem cells; regulatory T cells; tolerogenic dendritic cells; transforming growth factor-β; ulcerative colitis Crohn’s disease; granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor; interleukin-10; mesenchymal stem cells; regulatory T cells; tolerogenic dendritic cells; transforming growth factor-β; ulcerative colitis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Giuffrida, P.; Cococcia, S.; Delliponti, M.; Lenti, M.V.; Di Sabatino, A. Controlling Gut Inflammation by Restoring Anti-Inflammatory Pathways in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Cells 2019, 8, 397.

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