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mTOR Signalling in Head and Neck Cancer: Heads Up

1
Division of Cancer Research, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Grattan Street, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia
2
Univ Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, INSERM 1052, CNRS 5286, Centre Léon Bérard, Centre de recherche en cancérologie de Lyon, 69008 Lyon, France
3
Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Léon Bérard, 69008 Lyon, France
4
Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(4), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8040333
Received: 9 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 9 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue mTOR Signaling in Metabolism and Cancer)
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Abstract

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway is a central regulator of metabolism in all cells. It senses intracellular and extracellular signals and nutrient levels, and coordinates the metabolic requirements for cell growth, survival, and proliferation. Genetic alterations that deregulate mTOR signalling lead to metabolic reprogramming, resulting in the development of several cancers including those of the head and neck. Gain-of-function mutations in EGFR, PIK3CA, and HRAS, or loss-of-function in p53 and PTEN are often associated with mTOR hyperactivation, whereas mutations identified from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset that potentially lead to aberrant mTOR signalling are found in the EIF4G1, PLD1, RAC1, and SZT2 genes. In this review, we discuss how these mutant genes could affect mTOR signalling and highlight their impact on metabolic processes, as well as suggest potential targets for therapeutic intervention, primarily in head and neck cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: mTOR signalling; metabolism; head and neck cancer; mutant genes; biomarkers; targeted therapies; clinical trials mTOR signalling; metabolism; head and neck cancer; mutant genes; biomarkers; targeted therapies; clinical trials
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Tan, F.H.; Bai, Y.; Saintigny, P.; Darido, C. mTOR Signalling in Head and Neck Cancer: Heads Up. Cells 2019, 8, 333.

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