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Cells 2019, 8(2), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8020156

The Modern View of B Chromosomes Under the Impact of High Scale Omics Analyses

Department of Morphology, Institute of Biosciences at Botucatu, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), CEP 18618689, Botucatu, SP, Brazil
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Received: 28 January 2019 / Revised: 10 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuclear Organisation)
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Abstract

Supernumerary B chromosomes (Bs) are extra karyotype units in addition to A chromosomes, and are found in some fungi and thousands of animals and plant species. Bs are uniquely characterized due to their non-Mendelian inheritance, and represent one of the best examples of genomic conflict. Over the last decades, their genetic composition, function and evolution have remained an unresolved query, although a few successful attempts have been made to address these phenomena. A classical concept based on cytogenetics and genetics is that Bs are selfish and abundant with DNA repeats and transposons, and in most cases, they do not carry any function. However, recently, the modern quantum development of high scale multi-omics techniques has shifted B research towards a new-born field that we call “B-omics”. We review the recent literature and add novel perspectives to the B research, discussing the role of new technologies to understand the mechanistic perspectives of the molecular evolution and function of Bs. The modern view states that B chromosomes are enriched with genes for many significant biological functions, including but not limited to the interesting set of genes related to cell cycle and chromosome structure. Furthermore, the presence of B chromosomes could favor genomic rearrangements and influence the nuclear environment affecting the function of other chromatin regions. We hypothesize that B chromosomes might play a key function in driving their transmission and maintenance inside the cell, as well as offer an extra genomic compartment for evolution. View Full-Text
Keywords: evolution; cytogenetics; genes; genome; next generation sequencing evolution; cytogenetics; genes; genome; next generation sequencing
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Ahmad, S.F.; Martins, C. The Modern View of B Chromosomes Under the Impact of High Scale Omics Analyses. Cells 2019, 8, 156.

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