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Open AccessArticle

Trichinella spiralis Excretory–Secretory Products Stimulate Host Regulatory T Cell Differentiation through Activating Dendritic Cells

1
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China
2
Department of Pediatrics, National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(11), 1404; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8111404
Received: 6 September 2019 / Revised: 5 October 2019 / Accepted: 24 October 2019 / Published: 7 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulatory T (Treg) Cells in Health and Diseases)
Trichinella spiralis maintains chronic infections within its host, involving a variety of immunomodulatory properties, the mechanisms of which have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we found that T. spiralis infection induced strong regulatory T cell responses through parasite excretory–secretory (ES) products, characterized by increase of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ and CD4+CD25Foxp3+ Treg cells accompanied by high levels of IL-10 and TGF-β. T. spiralis adult worm excretory–secretory products (AES) and muscle larvae excretory–secretory products (MES) were both able to activate BMDCs in vitro to facilitate their maturation and to create regulatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β. The T. spiralis AES- and MES-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) possessed abilities not only to present antigens to sensitized CD4+ T cell to stimulate their proliferation but also to induce naive CD4+ T cells to differentiate to Treg cells secreting IL-10 and TGF-β. The passive transfer of T. spiralis AES- and MES-pulsed bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) conferred the naive mice to acquire the differentiation of Treg cells. T. spiralis AES possesses a better ability to induce Treg cells than did MES, although the latter has the ability to induce CD4+CD25Foxp3+ Treg cells. The results obtained in this study suggested that T. spiralis ES products stimulate the differentiation of host Treg cells possibly through activating dendritic cells to create a regulatory environment that benefits the survival of the parasite in the host. View Full-Text
Keywords: Trichinella spiralis; excretory–secretory products; CD4+ T cell; dendritic cells; regulatory T cells Trichinella spiralis; excretory–secretory products; CD4+ T cell; dendritic cells; regulatory T cells
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Sun, X.-M.; Guo, K.; Hao, C.-Y.; Zhan, B.; Huang, J.-J.; Zhu, X. Trichinella spiralis Excretory–Secretory Products Stimulate Host Regulatory T Cell Differentiation through Activating Dendritic Cells. Cells 2019, 8, 1404.

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