Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a group of malignant diseases of the haematopoietic system. AML occurs as the result of mutations in haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, which upregulate Wnt signalling through a variety of mechanisms. Other mechanisms of Wnt activation in AML have been described such as Wnt antagonist inactivation through promoter methylation. Wnt signalling is necessary for the maintenance of leukaemic stem cells. Several molecules involved in or modulating Wnt signalling have a prognostic value in AML. These include: β-catenin, LEF-1, phosphorylated-GSK3β, PSMD2, PPARD, XPNPEP, sFRP2, RUNX1, AXIN2, PCDH17, CXXC5, LLGL1 and PTK7. Targeting Wnt signalling for tumour eradication is an approach that is being explored in haematological and solid tumours. A number of preclinical studies confirms its feasibility, albeit, so far no reliable clinical trial data are available to prove its utility and efficacy.
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