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Cells 2019, 8(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8010011

A Rise in ATP, ROS, and Mitochondrial Content upon Glucose Withdrawal Correlates with a Dysregulated Mitochondria Turnover Mediated by the Activation of the Protein Deacetylase SIRT1

Department of Life Science, University of Seoul, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul 02504, Korea
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Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 27 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondrial Biology in Health and Disease)
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Abstract

Glucose withdrawal has been used as a model for the study of homeostatic defense mechanisms, especially for how cells cope with a shortage of nutrient supply by enhancing catabolism. However, detailed cellular responses to glucose withdrawal have been poorly studied, and are controversial. In this study, we determined how glucose withdrawal affects mitochondrial activity, and the quantity and the role of SIRT1 in these changes. The results of our study indicate a substantial increase in ATP production from mitochondria, through an elevation of mitochondrial biogenesis, mediated by SIRT1 activation that is driven by increased NAD+/NADH ratio. Moreover, mitochondria persisted in the cells as elongated forms, and apparently evaded mitophagic removal. This led to a steady increase in mitochondria content and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from them, indicating failure in ATP and ROS homeostasis, due to a misbalance in SIRT1-mediated mitochondria turnover in conditions of glucose withdrawal. Our results suggest that SIRT1 activation alone cannot properly manage energy homeostasis under certain metabolic crisis conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: ATP; mitochondria; glycolysis; glucose withdrawal; SIRT1; autophagy ATP; mitochondria; glycolysis; glucose withdrawal; SIRT1; autophagy
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Song, S.B.; Hwang, E.S. A Rise in ATP, ROS, and Mitochondrial Content upon Glucose Withdrawal Correlates with a Dysregulated Mitochondria Turnover Mediated by the Activation of the Protein Deacetylase SIRT1. Cells 2019, 8, 11.

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