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Cells 2018, 7(12), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells7120229

Mitochondrial Metabolism in Major Neurological Diseases

1
Molecular & Cellular Biochemistry Department, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
2
Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 November 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 21 November 2018 / Published: 23 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondrial Biology in Health and Disease)
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Abstract

Mitochondria are bilayer sub-cellular organelles that are an integral part of normal cellular physiology. They are responsible for producing the majority of a cell’s ATP, thus supplying energy for a variety of key cellular processes, especially in the brain. Although energy production is a key aspect of mitochondrial metabolism, its role extends far beyond energy production to cell signaling and epigenetic regulation–functions that contribute to cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, and autophagy. Recent research on neurological disorders suggest a major metabolic component in disease pathophysiology, and mitochondria have been shown to be in the center of metabolic dysregulation and possibly disease manifestation. This review will discuss the basic functions of mitochondria and how alterations in mitochondrial activity lead to neurological disease progression. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolism; mitochondria; Alzheimer’s disease; epilepsy; traumatic brain injury metabolism; mitochondria; Alzheimer’s disease; epilepsy; traumatic brain injury
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Zhou, Z.; Austin, G.L.; Young, L.E.A.; Johnson, L.A.; Sun, R. Mitochondrial Metabolism in Major Neurological Diseases. Cells 2018, 7, 229.

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