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Cells 2018, 7(12), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells7120228

Unleashing the Full Potential of Oncolytic Adenoviruses against Cancer by Applying RNA Interference: The Force Awakens

Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Medical Oncology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1117, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 21 November 2018 / Published: 23 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulatory microRNA)
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Abstract

Oncolytic virus therapy of cancer is an actively pursued field of research. Viruses that were once considered as pathogens threatening the wellbeing of humans and animals alike are with every passing decade more prominently regarded as vehicles for genetic and oncolytic therapies. Oncolytic viruses kill cancer cells, sparing healthy tissues, and provoke an anticancer immune response. Among these viruses, recombinant adenoviruses are particularly attractive agents for oncolytic immunotherapy of cancer. Different approaches are currently examined to maximize their therapeutic effect. Here, knowledge of virus–host interactions may lead the way. In this regard, viral and host microRNAs are of particular interest. In addition, cellular factors inhibiting viral replication or dampening immune responses are being discovered. Therefore, applying RNA interference is an attractive approach to strengthen the anticancer efficacy of oncolytic viruses gaining attention in recent years. RNA interference can be used to fortify the virus’ cancer cell-killing and immune-stimulating properties and to suppress cellular pathways to cripple the tumor. In this review, we discuss different ways of how RNA interference may be utilized to increase the efficacy of oncolytic adenoviruses, to reveal their full potential. View Full-Text
Keywords: RNA interference; small interfering RNA; microRNA; oncolytic virotherapy; conditionally replicating adenovirus (CRAd) RNA interference; small interfering RNA; microRNA; oncolytic virotherapy; conditionally replicating adenovirus (CRAd)
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Brachtlova, T.; van Beusechem, V.W. Unleashing the Full Potential of Oncolytic Adenoviruses against Cancer by Applying RNA Interference: The Force Awakens. Cells 2018, 7, 228.

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