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The RHO Family GTPases: Mechanisms of Regulation and Signaling

Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, Medical Faculty of the Heinrich Heine University, Universitätsstrasse 1, Building 22.03.05, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
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Academic Editor: Bor Luen Tang
Cells 2021, 10(7), 1831; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10071831
Received: 9 April 2021 / Revised: 13 July 2021 / Accepted: 13 July 2021 / Published: 20 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation and Function of Small GTPases 2.0)
Much progress has been made toward deciphering RHO GTPase functions, and many studies have convincingly demonstrated that altered signal transduction through RHO GTPases is a recurring theme in the progression of human malignancies. It seems that 20 canonical RHO GTPases are likely regulated by three GDIs, 85 GEFs, and 66 GAPs, and eventually interact with >70 downstream effectors. A recurring theme is the challenge in understanding the molecular determinants of the specificity of these four classes of interacting proteins that, irrespective of their functions, bind to common sites on the surface of RHO GTPases. Identified and structurally verified hotspots as functional determinants specific to RHO GTPase regulation by GDIs, GEFs, and GAPs as well as signaling through effectors are presented, and challenges and future perspectives are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: CDC42; effectors; RAC1; RHOA; RHOGAP; RHOGDI; RHOGEF; RHO signaling CDC42; effectors; RAC1; RHOA; RHOGAP; RHOGDI; RHOGEF; RHO signaling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mosaddeghzadeh, N.; Ahmadian, M.R. The RHO Family GTPases: Mechanisms of Regulation and Signaling. Cells 2021, 10, 1831. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10071831

AMA Style

Mosaddeghzadeh N, Ahmadian MR. The RHO Family GTPases: Mechanisms of Regulation and Signaling. Cells. 2021; 10(7):1831. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10071831

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mosaddeghzadeh, Niloufar, and Mohammad Reza Ahmadian. 2021. "The RHO Family GTPases: Mechanisms of Regulation and Signaling" Cells 10, no. 7: 1831. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10071831

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