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Deleterious Role of Th9 Cells in Pulmonary Fibrosis

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, National Center for Respiratory Medicine, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510182, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Anna Serrano-Mollar and C Arnold Spek
Cells 2021, 10(11), 3209;
Received: 17 September 2021 / Revised: 5 November 2021 / Accepted: 9 November 2021 / Published: 17 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Pulmonary Fibrosis and Cell Therapy)
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and fatal lung disease of unknown etiology. Immune disorders play an important role in IPF pathogenesis. Here, we show that Th9 cells differentiate and activate in the lung tissue of patients with IPF and bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung fibrosis mice. Moreover, we found that Th9 cells promote pulmonary fibrosis in two ways. On the one hand, Th9 cells promote fibroblast differentiation, activation, and collagen secretion by secreting IL-9. On the other hand, they promote differentiation of Th0 cells into Th2 cells by secreting IL-4. Th9 cells and Th2 cells can promote each other, accelerating the Th1/Th2 imbalance and eventually forming a positive feedback of pulmonary fibrosis. In addition, we found that neutralizing IL-9 in both preventive and therapeutic settings ameliorates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Furthermore, we identified several critical signaling pathways involved in the effect of neutralizing IL-9 on pulmonary fibrosis by proteomics study. From an immunological perspective, we elucidated the novel role and underlying mechanism of Th9 cells in pulmonary fibrosis. Our study suggested that Th9-based immunotherapy may be employed as a treatment strategy for IPF. View Full-Text
Keywords: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; Th9 cells; Th2 cells; interleukin-9 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; Th9 cells; Th2 cells; interleukin-9
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MDPI and ACS Style

Deng, K.M.; Yang, X.S.; Luo, Q.; She, Y.X.; Yu, Q.Y.; Tang, X.X. Deleterious Role of Th9 Cells in Pulmonary Fibrosis. Cells 2021, 10, 3209.

AMA Style

Deng KM, Yang XS, Luo Q, She YX, Yu QY, Tang XX. Deleterious Role of Th9 Cells in Pulmonary Fibrosis. Cells. 2021; 10(11):3209.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Deng, Kui Miao, Xiang Sheng Yang, Qun Luo, Yi Xin She, Qing Yang Yu, and Xiao Xiao Tang. 2021. "Deleterious Role of Th9 Cells in Pulmonary Fibrosis" Cells 10, no. 11: 3209.

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