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Open AccessArticle

Micronutrients in the Soil and Wheat: Impact of 84 Years of Organic or Synthetic Fertilization and Crop Residue Management

1
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
2
Department of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
3
USDA Agricultural Research Service, Columbia Plateau Conservation Research Center, Adams, OR 97810, USA
4
Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
5
Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Truro, NS B2N 5E3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2019, 9(8), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9080464
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 9 August 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
Crop residues are an important source of plant nutrients. However, information on the various methods of residue management on micronutrients in soil and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) over time is limited. A long-term (84-year) agroecosystem experiment was assessed to determine the impact of fertilizer type and methods of crop residue management on micronutrients over time under dryland winter wheat-fallow rotation. The treatments were: no N application with residue burning in fall (FB), spring (SB), and no residue burn (NB); 45 kg N ha−1 with SB and NB; 90 kg N ha−1 with SB and NB; pea vines; and farmyard manure (FYM) and a nearby undisturbed grass pasture (GP). Wheat grain, straw, and soil samples from 1995, 2005, and 2015 were used to determine tissue total and soil Mehlich III extractable Mn, Cu, B, Fe, and Zn, and soil pH. After 84 years, extractable Mn and B in the top 10 cm of soil decreased in all plots, except for B in FYM and SB. The FYM plots had the highest extractable Mn (114 mg kg−1) in the top 10 cm soil; however, it declined by 33% compared to the GP (171 mg kg−1). Extractable Zn in the top 10 cm of soil increased with FYM while it decreased with inorganic N application in 2015; however, total Zn in grain increased by 7% with inorganic N (90 kg ha−1) application compared to FYM application. The results suggest that residue management had similar impact on soil micronutrients. Inorganic N and FYM application can be integrated to reduce micronutrient losses from cultivation. View Full-Text
Keywords: boron; copper; iron; manganese; residue burn; zinc boron; copper; iron; manganese; residue burn; zinc
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Shiwakoti, S.; Zheljazkov, V.D.; Gollany, H.T.; Kleber, M.; Xing, B.; Astatkie, T. Micronutrients in the Soil and Wheat: Impact of 84 Years of Organic or Synthetic Fertilization and Crop Residue Management. Agronomy 2019, 9, 464.

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