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Open AccessArticle

Steeping of Biofortified Orange Maize Genotypes for Ogi Production Modifies Pasting Properties and Carotenoid Stability

1
Department of Food Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
2
Department of Agronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
3
Department of Agro-Food Processing, Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Lilongwe P.O Box 143, Malawi
4
Plants for Human Health Institute, North Carolina State University, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA
5
Department of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences, North Caroline State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2019, 9(11), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9110771
Received: 30 September 2019 / Revised: 29 October 2019 / Accepted: 30 October 2019 / Published: 18 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofortification of Crops)
Biofortified orange maize open-pollinated varieties and hybrids with higher provitamin A carotenoids (pVACs) have been released in sub-Saharan Africa and will be introduced throughout the local food systems. This study assessed the impact of steeping, a traditional processing method, on retention of carotenoids and starch pasting properties of porridges made from select biofortified maize genotypes. Steeping had a modest effect (<9% loss) on total carotenoid stability during relatively shorter steeping periods (<72 h). However, more extended steeping periods (up to 120 h) had a detrimental effect on total carotenoid recovery (61% loss). Xanthophylls showed greater stability (82% retention) compared to carotenes (30% retention) during subsequent wet cooking of fermented flours. Interestingly, steeping of maize did modify pasting properties, with peak viscosities increasing from 24–72 h of steeping potentially impacting cooking stability. These results suggest that steeping can impact carotenoid retention and potentially optimal steeping times would be 24–72 h for acceptable carotenoid retention. View Full-Text
Keywords: biofortified maize; pro-vitamin A; lutein; zeaxanthin; carotenoids; degradation; retention; steeping; fermentation; food processing; nutritional impact biofortified maize; pro-vitamin A; lutein; zeaxanthin; carotenoids; degradation; retention; steeping; fermentation; food processing; nutritional impact
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ortiz, D.; Nkhata, S.G.; Rocheford, T.; Ferruzzi, M.G. Steeping of Biofortified Orange Maize Genotypes for Ogi Production Modifies Pasting Properties and Carotenoid Stability. Agronomy 2019, 9, 771.

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