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Article

Genetic Characterization and Agronomic Evaluation of Drought Tolerance in Ten Egyptian Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars

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Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt
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Department of Agricultural Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt
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Department of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, Poznań University of Life Sciences, 60-637 Poznan, Poland
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Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12619, Egypt
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Department of Geoecology and Geoinformation, Institute of Biology and Earth Sciences, Pomeranian University in Słupsk, Partyzantów 27, 76-200 Słupsk, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Fernando Martinez-Moreno, Magdalena Ruiz, María B. Picó and María-José Díez
Agronomy 2022, 12(5), 1217; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12051217
Received: 17 April 2022 / Revised: 12 May 2022 / Accepted: 16 May 2022 / Published: 18 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Utilizing Genetic Resources for Agronomic Traits Improvement)
This investigation was carried out for genetic characterization and determination of drought tolerance of ten Egyptian cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), namely Misr 1, Misr 2, Gemmiza 9, Gemmiza 10, Gemmiza 11, Gemmiza 12, Shandawel 1, Giza 168, Giza 171, and Sids 14. These cultivars were grown in two winter seasons: 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 at the experimental farm Fac. of Agric., Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia, Egypt, under two watering regimes: normal (100%) and stress (50% FC) conditions. Six agronomic traits and five tolerance indices, namely stress tolerance (TOL), mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP), yield stability index (YSI), and drought susceptibility index (DSI), were used to evaluate the impact of drought stress. The results reflected Giza 171, Misr 2, and Giza 168 as precious germplasm for breeding of high-yielding drought-tolerant wheat. A highly significant positive correlation was recorded between yield under normal and stress conditions on the one hand and each of MP and GMP on the other hand. In addition, YSI appeared engaged in a highly significant positive correlation with yield under drought conditions only. TOL and DSI appeared insignificantly correlated with yield. Therefore, MP and GMP were reflected as the first runners among indices suitable to distinguish the high-yielding cultivars under drought conditions. At the molecular level, five primers of Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) markers were able to resolve and characterize the studied cultivars, which reflected SCoT as a potent gene-targeting molecular marker, able to characterize and resolve genetic diversity in wheat at the cultivar level using few primers. Therefore, SCoT is a time-efficient molecular marker, and it can efficiently replace indices in characterization of drought-tolerant genotypes with a high confidence level and reasonable cost. View Full-Text
Keywords: drought; Egyptian wheat cultivars; selection indices; chlorophyll content; yield and yield component; SCoT markers drought; Egyptian wheat cultivars; selection indices; chlorophyll content; yield and yield component; SCoT markers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Emam, M.A.; Abd EL-Mageed, A.M.; Niedbała, G.; Sabrey, S.A.; Fouad, A.S.; Kapiel, T.; Piekutowska, M.; Mahmoud, S.A. Genetic Characterization and Agronomic Evaluation of Drought Tolerance in Ten Egyptian Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars. Agronomy 2022, 12, 1217. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12051217

AMA Style

Emam MA, Abd EL-Mageed AM, Niedbała G, Sabrey SA, Fouad AS, Kapiel T, Piekutowska M, Mahmoud SA. Genetic Characterization and Agronomic Evaluation of Drought Tolerance in Ten Egyptian Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars. Agronomy. 2022; 12(5):1217. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12051217

Chicago/Turabian Style

Emam, Mohamed A., Amal M. Abd EL-Mageed, Gniewko Niedbała, Samah A. Sabrey, Ahmed S. Fouad, Tarek Kapiel, Magdalena Piekutowska, and Soad A. Mahmoud. 2022. "Genetic Characterization and Agronomic Evaluation of Drought Tolerance in Ten Egyptian Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars" Agronomy 12, no. 5: 1217. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12051217

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