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Review

Factors That Influence Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Agricultural Soils as Well as Their Representation in Simulation Models: A Review

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Department of Water, Atmosphere and Environment, Institute for Hydrology and Water Management, University of Natural Resources & Life Science, 1190 Vienna, Austria
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Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy, 14469 Potsdam, Germany
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Faculty of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Engineering, University of Zielona Góra, Licealna 9/9, 65-417 Zielona Góra, Poland
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Department of Crop Science, Institute of Agronomy, University of Natural Resources & Life Science, 3430 Tulln an der Donau, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francis Drummond
Agronomy 2021, 11(4), 770; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040770
Received: 11 March 2021 / Revised: 31 March 2021 / Accepted: 10 April 2021 / Published: 14 April 2021
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a long-lived greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming. Emissions of N2O mainly stem from agricultural soils. This review highlights the principal factors from peer-reviewed literature affecting N2O emissions from agricultural soils, by grouping the factors into three categories: environmental, management and measurement. Within these categories, each impact factor is explained in detail and its influence on N2O emissions from the soil is summarized. It is also shown how each impact factor influences other impact factors. Process-based simulation models used for estimating N2O emissions are reviewed regarding their ability to consider the impact factors in simulating N2O. The model strengths and weaknesses in simulating N2O emissions from managed soils are summarized. Finally, three selected process-based simulation models (Daily Century (DAYCENT), DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC), and Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)) are discussed that are widely used to simulate N2O emissions from cropping systems. Their ability to simulate N2O emissions is evaluated by describing the model components that are relevant to N2O processes and their representation in the model. View Full-Text
Keywords: denitrification; nitrification; N2O impact factor; N2O modelling; emission factors denitrification; nitrification; N2O impact factor; N2O modelling; emission factors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, C.; Amon, B.; Schulz, K.; Mehdi, B. Factors That Influence Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Agricultural Soils as Well as Their Representation in Simulation Models: A Review. Agronomy 2021, 11, 770. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040770

AMA Style

Wang C, Amon B, Schulz K, Mehdi B. Factors That Influence Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Agricultural Soils as Well as Their Representation in Simulation Models: A Review. Agronomy. 2021; 11(4):770. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040770

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Cong, Barbara Amon, Karsten Schulz, and Bano Mehdi. 2021. "Factors That Influence Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Agricultural Soils as Well as Their Representation in Simulation Models: A Review" Agronomy 11, no. 4: 770. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040770

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