Precision Synthesis of Functional Polysaccharide Materials by Phosphorylase-Catalyzed Enzymatic Reactions
AbstractIn this review article, the precise synthesis of functional polysaccharide materials using phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic reactions is presented. This particular enzymatic approach has been identified as a powerful tool in preparing well-defined polysaccharide materials. Phosphorylase is an enzyme that has been employed in the synthesis of pure amylose with a precisely controlled structure. Similarly, using a phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization, the chemoenzymatic synthesis of amylose-grafted heteropolysaccharides containing different main-chain polysaccharide structures (e.g., chitin/chitosan, cellulose, alginate, xanthan gum, and carboxymethyl cellulose) was achieved. Amylose-based block, star, and branched polymeric materials have also been prepared using this enzymatic polymerization. Since phosphorylase shows a loose specificity for the recognition of substrates, different sugar residues have been introduced to the non-reducing ends of maltooligosaccharides by phosphorylase-catalyzed glycosylations using analog substrates such as α-d-glucuronic acid and α-d-glucosamine 1-phosphates. By means of such reactions, an amphoteric glycogen and its corresponding hydrogel were successfully prepared. Thermostable phosphorylase was able to tolerate a greater variance in the substrate structures with respect to recognition than potato phosphorylase, and as a result, the enzymatic polymerization of α-d-glucosamine 1-phosphate to produce a chitosan stereoisomer was carried out using this enzyme catalyst, which was then subsequently converted to the chitin stereoisomer by N-acetylation. Amylose supramolecular inclusion complexes with polymeric guests were obtained when the phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization was conducted in the presence of the guest polymers. Since the structure of this polymeric system is similar to the way that a plant vine twines around a rod, this polymerization system has been named “vine-twining polymerization”. Through this approach, amylose supramolecular network materials were fabricated using designed graft copolymers. Furthermore, supramolecular inclusion polymers were formed by vine-twining polymerization using primer–guest conjugates. View Full-Text
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Kadokawa, J.-I. Precision Synthesis of Functional Polysaccharide Materials by Phosphorylase-Catalyzed Enzymatic Reactions. Polymers 2016, 8, 138.
Kadokawa J-I. Precision Synthesis of Functional Polysaccharide Materials by Phosphorylase-Catalyzed Enzymatic Reactions. Polymers. 2016; 8(4):138.Chicago/Turabian Style
Kadokawa, Jun-ichi. 2016. "Precision Synthesis of Functional Polysaccharide Materials by Phosphorylase-Catalyzed Enzymatic Reactions." Polymers 8, no. 4: 138.
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