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Open AccessArticle

Genetically Modified M13 Bacteriophage Nanonets for Enzyme Catalysis and Recovery

1
Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Heisenbergstrasse 3, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
2
Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
3
Institute for Materials Science, University of Stuttgart, Heisenbergstrasse 3, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2019, 9(9), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9090723
Received: 8 August 2019 / Accepted: 23 August 2019 / Published: 27 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art and Future Trends in Nanostructured Biocatalysis)
Enzyme-based biocatalysis exhibits multiple advantages over inorganic catalysts, including the biocompatibility and the unchallenged specificity of enzymes towards their substrate. The recovery and repeated use of enzymes is essential for any realistic application in biotechnology, but is not easily achieved with current strategies. For this purpose, enzymes are often immobilized on inorganic scaffolds, which could entail a reduction of the enzymes’ activity. Here, we show that immobilization to a nano-scaled biological scaffold, a nanonetwork of end-to-end cross-linked M13 bacteriophages, ensures high enzymatic activity and at the same time allows for the simple recovery of the enzymes. The bacteriophages have been genetically engineered to express AviTags at their ends, which permit biotinylation and their specific end-to-end self-assembly while allowing space on the major coat protein for enzyme coupling. We demonstrate that the phages form nanonetwork structures and that these so-called nanonets remain highly active even after re-using the nanonets multiple times in a flow-through reactor. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanonets; biocatalysis; enzyme recovery; M13 bacteriophage; AviTag; enzyme immobilization nanonets; biocatalysis; enzyme recovery; M13 bacteriophage; AviTag; enzyme immobilization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kadiri, V.M.; Alarcón-Correa, M.; Ruppert, J.; Günther, J.-P.; Bill, J.; Rothenstein, D.; Fischer, P. Genetically Modified M13 Bacteriophage Nanonets for Enzyme Catalysis and Recovery. Catalysts 2019, 9, 723.

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