Next Article in Journal
Reactor Selection for Effective Continuous Biocatalytic Production of Pharmaceuticals
Previous Article in Journal
Fischer–Tropsch: Product Selectivity–The Fingerprint of Synthetic Fuels
Previous Article in Special Issue
Alkaline Modification of a Metal–Enzyme–Surfactant Nanocomposite to Enhance the Production of L-α-glycerylphosphorylcholine
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperPerspective
Catalysts 2019, 9(3), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9030261

CLEAs, Combi-CLEAs and ‘Smart’ Magnetic CLEAs: Biocatalysis in a Bio-Based Economy

1
Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa
2
Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, 2628 BL Delft, The Netherlands
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocatalysts: Design and Application)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2948 KB, uploaded 15 March 2019]   |  

Abstract

Biocatalysis has emerged in the last decade as a pre-eminent technology for enabling the envisaged transition to a more sustainable bio-based economy. For industrial viability it is essential that enzymes can be readily recovered and recycled by immobilization as solid, recyclable catalysts. One method to achieve this is via carrier-free immobilization as cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs). This methodology proved to be very effective with a broad selection of enzymes, in particular carbohydrate-converting enzymes. Methods for optimizing CLEA preparations by, for example, adding proteic feeders to promote cross-linking, and strategies for making the pores accessible for macromolecular substrates are critically reviewed and compared. Co-immobilization of two or more enzymes in combi-CLEAs enables the cost-effective use of multiple enzymes in biocatalytic cascade processes and the use of “smart” magnetic CLEAs to separate the immobilized enzyme from other solids has raised the CLEA technology to a new level of industrial and environmental relevance. Magnetic-CLEAs of polysaccharide-converting enzymes, for example, are eminently suitable for use in the conversion of first and second generation biomass. View Full-Text
Keywords: enzymes; immobilization; biocatalysis; enzymatic cascades; cross-linking; CLEAs; combi-CLEAs; magnetic CLEAs; biomass conversion; polysaccharides enzymes; immobilization; biocatalysis; enzymatic cascades; cross-linking; CLEAs; combi-CLEAs; magnetic CLEAs; biomass conversion; polysaccharides
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sheldon, R.A. CLEAs, Combi-CLEAs and ‘Smart’ Magnetic CLEAs: Biocatalysis in a Bio-Based Economy. Catalysts 2019, 9, 261.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Catalysts EISSN 2073-4344 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top