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Open AccessArticle

Microstructural Characteristics of Vehicle-Aged Heavy-Duty Diesel Oxidation Catalyst and Natural Gas Three-Way Catalyst

1
Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Tampere University, P.O. Box 589, FI-33014 Tampere, Finland
2
Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
3
Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, P.O. Box 110, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland
4
Dinex Finland Oy, Vihtavuorentie 162, FI-41330 Vihtavuori, Finland
5
SSAB Europe Oy, Rautaruukintie 155, FI-92101 Raahe, Finland
6
Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Currently Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, P.O. Box 40, FI-00032 Työterveyslaitos, Finland.
Currently Murata Electronics Oy, Myllynkivenkuja 6, FI-01621 Vantaa, Finland.
§
Currently Sandvik Mining and Construction Oy, Pihtisulunkatu 9, FI-33310 Tampere, Finland.
Catalysts 2019, 9(2), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9020137
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysts Deactivation, Poisoning and Regeneration)
Techniques to control vehicle engine emissions have been under increasing need for development during the last few years in the more and more strictly regulated society. In this study, vehicle-aged heavy-duty catalysts from diesel and natural gas engines were analyzed using a cross-sectional electron microscopy method with both a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. Also, additional supporting characterization methods including X-ray diffractometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and catalytic performance analyses were used to reveal the ageing effects. Structural and elemental investigations were performed on these samples, and the effect of real-life ageing of the catalyst was studied in comparison with fresh catalyst samples. In the real-life use of two different catalysts, the poison penetration varied greatly depending on the engine and fuel at hand: the diesel oxidation catalyst appeared to suffer more thorough changes than the natural gas catalyst, which was affected only in the inlet part of the catalyst. The most common poison, sulphur, in the diesel oxidation catalyst was connected to cerium-rich areas. On the other hand, the severities of the ageing effects were more pronounced in the natural gas catalyst, with heavy structural changes in the washcoat and high concentrations of poisons, mainly zinc, phosphorus and silicon, on the surface of the inlet part. View Full-Text
Keywords: catalyst deactivation; diesel; natural gas; SEM; TEM; poisoning catalyst deactivation; diesel; natural gas; SEM; TEM; poisoning
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kanerva, T.; Honkanen, M.; Kolli, T.; Heikkinen, O.; Kallinen, K.; Saarinen, T.; Lahtinen, J.; Olsson, E.; Keiski, R.L.; Vippola, M. Microstructural Characteristics of Vehicle-Aged Heavy-Duty Diesel Oxidation Catalyst and Natural Gas Three-Way Catalyst. Catalysts 2019, 9, 137.

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