Enzymes as industrial biocatalysts offer numerous advantages over traditional chemical processes with respect to sustainability and process efficiency. Enzyme catalysis has been scaled up for commercial processes in the pharmaceutical, food and beverage industries, although further enhancements in stability and biocatalyst functionality are required for optimal biocatalytic processes in the energy sector for biofuel production and in natural gas conversion. The technical barriers associated with the implementation of immobilized enzymes suggest that a multidisciplinary approach is necessary for the development of immobilized biocatalysts applicable in such industrial-scale processes. Specifically, the overlap of technical expertise in enzyme immobilization, protein and process engineering will define the next generation of immobilized biocatalysts and the successful scale-up of their induced processes. This review discusses how biocatalysis has been successfully deployed, how enzyme immobilization can improve industrial processes, as well as focuses on the analysis tools critical for the multi-scale implementation of enzyme immobilization for increased product yield at maximum market profitability and minimum logistical burden on the environment and user.
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