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Are Leading Risk Factors for Cancer and Mental Disorders Multimorbidity Shared by These Two Individual Conditions in Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged Adults?

by Xianwen Shang 1,2,3, Allison M. Hodge 4,5, Wei Peng 6, Mingguang He 1,7,8,* and Lei Zhang 1,9,10,11,12,*
1
Centre for Eye Research Australia, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Melbourne, VIC 3002, Australia
2
School of Behavioural and Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, VIC 3002, Australia
3
Department of Medicine (Royal Melbourne Hospital), University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3050, Australia
4
Cancer Epidemiology Division, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia
5
Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia
6
Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC 3083, Australia
7
Ophthalmology, Department of Surgery, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3002, Australia
8
State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, National Clinical Research Center, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060, China
9
China-Australia Joint Research Center for Infectious Diseases, School of Public Health, Xi’an Jiaotong University Health Science Centre, Xi’an 760061, Shaanxi, China
10
Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Alfred Health, Melbourne, VIC 3053, Australia
11
Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia
12
School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(6), 1700; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061700
Received: 14 April 2020 / Revised: 22 June 2020 / Accepted: 24 June 2020 / Published: 26 June 2020
Data on the leading shared risk factors of cancer and mental disorders are limited. We included 98,958 participants (54.8% women) aged 45–64 years from the 45 and Up Study who were free of cancer, depression, and anxiety at baseline (2006–2009). The incidence of cancer, mental disorders, and multimorbidity (concurrent cancer and mental disorders) was identified using claim databases during follow-up until 31 December 2016. During a nine-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of cancer, mental disorders, and multimorbidity was 8.8%, 17.4%, and 2.2%, respectively. Participants with cancer were 3.41 times more likely to develop mental disorders, while individuals with mental disorders were 3.06 times more likely to develop cancer than people without these conditions. The shared risk factors for cancer and mental disorders were older age, female gender, smoking, psychological distress, low fruit intake, poor/fair self-rated health, hypertension, arthritis, asthma, and diabetes. Low education, low income, overweight/obesity, and family history of depression were risk factors for mental disorders and multimorbidity but not cancer. In conclusion, smoking, low fruit intake, and obesity are key modifiable factors for the prevention of cancer and mental disorders. Individuals with poor/fair self-rated health, high psychological distress, asthma, hypertension, arthritis, or diabetes should be targeted for the prevention and screening of cancer and mental disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: multimorbidity; cancer; mental disorders; shared risk factors; leading risk factors; machine learning multimorbidity; cancer; mental disorders; shared risk factors; leading risk factors; machine learning
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Shang, X.; Hodge, A.M.; Peng, W.; He, M.; Zhang, L. Are Leading Risk Factors for Cancer and Mental Disorders Multimorbidity Shared by These Two Individual Conditions in Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged Adults? Cancers 2020, 12, 1700.

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