Next Article in Journal
Are Leading Risk Factors for Cancer and Mental Disorders Multimorbidity Shared by These Two Individual Conditions in Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged Adults?
Previous Article in Journal
The Value of Laboratory Parameters for Anemia, Renal Function, Systemic Inflammation and Nutritional Status as Predictors for Outcome in Elderly Patients with Head-and-Neck Cancers
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Double-Edged Sword Role of Viruses in Gastric Cancer
Open AccessReview

Optimizing Oncolytic Viral Design to Enhance Antitumor Efficacy: Progress and Challenges

Department of Surgery, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(6), 1699;
Received: 31 May 2020 / Revised: 19 June 2020 / Accepted: 23 June 2020 / Published: 26 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Virus Therapy Against Cancer)
The field of oncolytic virotherapy has seen remarkable advancements in last two decades, leading to approval of the first oncolytic immuno-virotherapy, Talimogene Laherparepvec, for the treatment of melanoma. A plethora of preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated excellent safety profiles of other oncolytic viruses. While oncolytic viruses show clinical promise in already immunogenic malignancies, response rates are inconsistent. Response rates are even less consistent in immunosuppressed tumor microenvironments like those found in liver, pancreas, and MSI-stable colon cancers. Therefore, the efficacy of oncolytic viruses needs to be improved for more oncolytic viruses to enter mainstream cancer therapy. One approach to increase the therapeutic efficacy of oncolytic viruses is to use them as primers for other immunotherapeutics. The amenability of oncolytic viruses to transgene-arming provides an immense opportunity for investigators to explore different ways of improving the outcome of oncolytic therapy. In this regard, genes encoding immunomodulatory proteins are the most commonly studied genes for arming oncolytic viruses. Other transgenes used to arm oncolytic viruses include those with the potential to favorably modulate tumor stroma, making it possible to image the virus distribution and increase its suitability for combination with other therapeutics. This review will detail the progress made in arming oncolytic viruses with a focus on immune-modulatory transgenes, and will discuss the challenges that need to be addressed for more armed oncolytic viruses to find widespread clinical use. View Full-Text
Keywords: oncolytic virus; transgene; arming; immunotherapy; Cytokines; CAR-T cells oncolytic virus; transgene; arming; immunotherapy; Cytokines; CAR-T cells
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Chaurasiya, S.; Fong, Y.; Warner, S.G. Optimizing Oncolytic Viral Design to Enhance Antitumor Efficacy: Progress and Challenges. Cancers 2020, 12, 1699.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop