Meningiomas are the most common type of intracranial brain tumors in adults. The majority of meningiomas are benign with a low risk of recurrence after resection. However, meningiomas defined as grades II or III, according to the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification, termed high-grade meningiomas, frequently recur, even after gross total resection with or without adjuvant radiotherapy. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) are novel treatment modalities for malignant brain tumors, represented by glioblastomas. Although BNCT is based on a nuclear reaction and PDT uses a photochemical reaction, both of these therapies result in cellular damage to only the tumor cells. The aim of this literature review is to investigate the possibility and efficacy of BNCT and PDT as novel treatment modalities for high-grade meningiomas. The present review was conducted by searching PubMed and Scopus databases. The search was conducted in December 2019. Early clinical studies of BNCT have demonstrated activity for high-grade meningiomas, and a phase II clinical trial is in progress in Japan. As for PDT, studies have investigated the effect of PDT in malignant meningioma cell lines to establish PDT as a treatment for malignant meningiomas. Further laboratory research combined with proper controlled trials investigating the effects of these therapies is warranted.
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