Next Article in Journal
EVs as Potential New Therapeutic Tool/Target in Gastrointestinal Cancer and HCC
Next Article in Special Issue
Multimodal Treatment of Advanced Mucosal Melanoma in the Era of Modern Immunotherapy
Previous Article in Journal
Mitochondria at Center of Exchanges between Cancer Cells and Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts during Tumor Progression
Previous Article in Special Issue
Arthralgia Induced by BRAF Inhibitor Therapy in Melanoma Patients
Open AccessArticle

Inhibition of Melanoma Cell Migration and Invasion Targeting the Hypoxic Tumor Associated CAXII

1
Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, Cellular and Molecular Physiology Unit, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
2
Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
3
Department of Medical Biotechnologies, Cellular and Molecular Physiology Unit, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(10), 3018; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12103018
Received: 16 September 2020 / Revised: 9 October 2020 / Accepted: 14 October 2020 / Published: 17 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Novel Treatment Options in Metastatic Melanoma)
Melanoma is a potential metastatic cancer with a poor prognosis and a low free-survival rate. Thus, discovering new therapeutic strategies will be helpful to fight against it. Carbonic anhydrases IX (CAIX) and XII (CAXII) along with Hedgehog pathway aberrations are already demonstrated to be involved in melanoma progression. Here we investigated the effects of either an indirect or direct CAXII inhibition on cell migration and invasion in three melanoma cell lines. First we indirectly inhibited CAXII through the smoothened antagonist cyclopamine, which resulted in a decreased CAXII protein expression and cell migration. Thereafter, we directly blocked CAXII using new small molecules. This resulted in reducing not only cell migration, but also the invasiveness ability of highly aggressive melanoma cell lines. This evidence may contribute to further exploiting the therapeutic role of CAXII in melanoma progression and invasiveness.
Background: Intratumoral hypoxia contributes to cancer progression and poor prognosis. Carbonic anhydrases IX (CAIX) and XII (CAXII) play pivotal roles in tumor cell adaptation and survival, as aberrant Hedgehog (Hh) pathway does. In malignant melanoma both features have been investigated for years, but they have not been correlated before and/or identified as a potential pharmacological target. Here, for the first time, we demonstrated that malignant melanoma cell motility was impaired by targeting CAXII via either CAs inhibitors or through the inhibition of the Hh pathway. Methods: We tested cell motility in three melanoma cell lines (WM-35, SK-MEL28, and A375), with different invasiveness capabilities. To this end we performed a scratch assay in the presence of the smoothened (SMO) antagonist cyclopamine (cyclo) or CAs inhibitors under normoxia or hypoxia. Then, we analyzed the invasiveness potential in the cell lines which were more affected by cyclo and CAs inhibitors (SK-MEL28 and A375). Western blot was employed to assess the expression of the hypoxia inducible factor 1α, CAXII, and FAK phosphorylation. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to verify the blockade of CAXII expression. Results: Hh inhibition reduced melanoma cell migration and CAXII expression under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Interestingly, basal CAXII expression was higher in the two more aggressive melanoma cell lines. Finally, a direct CAXII blockade impaired melanoma cell migration and invasion under hypoxia. This was associated with a decrease of FAK phosphorylation and metalloprotease activities. Conclusions: CAXII may be used as a target for melanoma treatment not only through its direct inhibition, but also through Hh blockade. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbonic anhydrase; hedgehog; cyclopamine; small molecules; acetazolamide; motility; metalloproteinases; FAK; cancer carbonic anhydrase; hedgehog; cyclopamine; small molecules; acetazolamide; motility; metalloproteinases; FAK; cancer
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Giuntini, G.; Monaci, S.; Cau, Y.; Mori, M.; Naldini, A.; Carraro, F. Inhibition of Melanoma Cell Migration and Invasion Targeting the Hypoxic Tumor Associated CAXII. Cancers 2020, 12, 3018.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop