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Article

1H-NMR Based Serum Metabolomics Highlights Different Specific Biomarkers between Early and Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Stages

1
Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences for Children and Adults, University Hospital of Modena, 41125 Modena, Italy
2
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies, University of Salento, 73100 Lecce, Italy
3
Biosciences Laboratory, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, 47014 Meldola, Italy
4
Department of Internal Medicine, Degli Infermi Hospital, 48018 Faenza, Italy
5
Department of Medical Oncology, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, 47014 Meldola, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to the study.
Cancers 2020, 12(1), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12010241
Received: 11 December 2019 / Revised: 10 January 2020 / Accepted: 15 January 2020 / Published: 18 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Research on Gastrointestinal Carcinoma)
The application of non-targeted serum metabolomics profiling represents a noninvasive tool to identify new clinical biomarkers and to provide early diagnostic differentiation, and insight into the pathological mechanisms underlying hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression. In this study, we used proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) Spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis to profile the serum metabolome of 64 HCC patients, in early (n = 28) and advanced (n = 36) disease stages. We found that 1H-NMR metabolomics profiling could discriminate early from advanced HCC patients with a cross-validated accuracy close to 100%. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) showed significant changes in serum glucose, lactate, lipids and some amino acids, such as alanine, glutamine, 1-methylhistidine, lysine and valine levels between advanced and early HCC patients. Moreover, in early HCC patients, Kaplan–Meier analysis highlighted the serum tyrosine level as a predictor for overall survival (OS). Overall, our analysis identified a set of metabolites with possible clinical and biological implication in HCC pathophysiology. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; NMR; metabolomics; OPLS-DA; radiofrequency; sorafenib hepatocellular carcinoma; NMR; metabolomics; OPLS-DA; radiofrequency; sorafenib
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MDPI and ACS Style

Casadei-Gardini, A.; Del Coco, L.; Marisi, G.; Conti, F.; Rovesti, G.; Ulivi, P.; Canale, M.; Frassineti, G.L.; Foschi, F.G.; Longo, S.; Fanizzi, F.P.; Giudetti, A.M. 1H-NMR Based Serum Metabolomics Highlights Different Specific Biomarkers between Early and Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Stages. Cancers 2020, 12, 241. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12010241

AMA Style

Casadei-Gardini A, Del Coco L, Marisi G, Conti F, Rovesti G, Ulivi P, Canale M, Frassineti GL, Foschi FG, Longo S, Fanizzi FP, Giudetti AM. 1H-NMR Based Serum Metabolomics Highlights Different Specific Biomarkers between Early and Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Stages. Cancers. 2020; 12(1):241. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12010241

Chicago/Turabian Style

Casadei-Gardini, Andrea; Del Coco, Laura; Marisi, Giorgia; Conti, Fabio; Rovesti, Giulia; Ulivi, Paola; Canale, Matteo; Frassineti, Giovanni L.; Foschi, Francesco G.; Longo, Serena; Fanizzi, Francesco P.; Giudetti, Anna M. 2020. "1H-NMR Based Serum Metabolomics Highlights Different Specific Biomarkers between Early and Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Stages" Cancers 12, no. 1: 241. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12010241

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