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Open AccessArticle

AT2 Receptor Mediated Activation of the Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP1B Blocks Caveolin-1 Enhanced Migration, Invasion and Metastasis of Cancer Cells

1
Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Faculty of Chemical & Pharmaceutical Sciences and Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago 8380000, Chile
2
Center for Studies on Exercise, Metabolism and Cancer (CEMC), Institute of Biomedical Sciences (ICBM), Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago 8380000, Chile
3
Instituto de Innovación e Investigación en Salud, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Central de Chile, Santiago 8320000, Chile
4
Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Facultad de medicina, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago 8330024, Chile
5
Cardiology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
6
Corporación Centro de Estudios Científicos de las Enfermedades Crónicas (CECEC), Santiago 7860201, Chile
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(9), 1299; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11091299
Received: 16 July 2019 / Revised: 9 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 3 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Invasion and Metastasis)
The renin–angiotensin receptor AT2R controls systemic blood pressure and is also suggested to modulate metastasis of cancer cells. However, in the latter case, the mechanisms involved downstream of AT2R remain to be defined. We recently described a novel Caveolin-1(CAV1)/Ras-related protein 5A (Rab5)/Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) signaling axis that promotes metastasis in melanoma, colon, and breast cancer cells. Here, we evaluated whether the anti-metastatic effect of AT2R is connected to inhibition of this pathway. We found that murine melanoma B16F10 cells expressed AT2R, while MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells did not. AT2R activation blocked migration, transendothelial migration, and metastasis of B16F10(cav-1) cells, and this effect was lost when AT2R was silenced. Additionally, AT2R activation reduced transendothelial migration of A375 human melanoma cells expressing CAV1. The relevance of AT2R was further underscored by showing that overexpression of the AT2R in MDA-MB-231 cells decreased migration. Moreover, AT2R activation increased non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) activity, decreased phosphorylation of CAV1 on tyrosine-14 as well as Rab5/Rac1 activity, and reduced lung metastasis of B16F10(cav-1) cells in C57BL/6 mice. Thus, AT2R activation reduces migration, invasion, and metastasis of cancer cells by PTP1B-mediated CAV1 dephosphorylation and inhibition of the CAV1/Rab5/Rac-1 pathway. In doing so, these observations open up interesting, novel therapeutic opportunities to treat metastatic cancer disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: AT2 receptor; Caveolin-1; PTP1B; metastasis AT2 receptor; Caveolin-1; PTP1B; metastasis
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Martínez-Meza, S.; Díaz, J.; Sandoval-Bórquez, A.; Valenzuela-Valderrama, M.; Díaz-Valdivia, N.; Rojas-Celis, V.; Contreras, P.; Huilcaman, R.; Ocaranza, M.P.; Chiong, M.; Leyton, L.; Lavandero, S.; Quest, A.F. AT2 Receptor Mediated Activation of the Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP1B Blocks Caveolin-1 Enhanced Migration, Invasion and Metastasis of Cancer Cells. Cancers 2019, 11, 1299.

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