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Possible Biomarkers for Cancer Immunotherapy

Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017, Japan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(7), 935; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11070935
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 30 June 2019 / Published: 3 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Biomarkers in Cancers)
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Abstract

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have drastically changed the clinical care of cancer. Although cancer immunotherapy has shown promise in various types of malignancies, thus far, the proportion of patients who can benefit from ICIs is relatively small. Immune-related adverse events and high cost are unavoidable problems. Therefore, biomarkers defining patients that are most likely to benefit from ICIs are urgently needed. The expression of programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a logical biomarker for the prediction of response to anti-PD1/PD-L1 immunotherapies. However, its usefulness is currently debatable because of its varied definition, threshold, and spatial/temporal heterogeneity. Recently, it was reported that the tumor mutational burden, expression of neoantigens, mismatch repair status, and specific gene mutations may be markers for the success of treatment with ICIs. Moreover, it was suggested that the fecal microbiota prior to immunotherapy may play an important role in predicting the efficacy of ICIs. In this review, we focused on these potential biomarkers for cancer immunotherapy reported in recent clinical articles. Further studies are warranted to develop a predictive model using these biomarkers, with the aim of practicing precision medicine in cancer immunotherapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer immunotherapy; programmed cell death-ligand 1 expression; tumor mutational burden; neoantigens; mismatch repair status; specific gene mutations; gut microbiome cancer immunotherapy; programmed cell death-ligand 1 expression; tumor mutational burden; neoantigens; mismatch repair status; specific gene mutations; gut microbiome
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Otoshi, T.; Nagano, T.; Tachihara, M.; Nishimura, Y. Possible Biomarkers for Cancer Immunotherapy. Cancers 2019, 11, 935.

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