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Focus on Formononetin: Anticancer Potential and Molecular Targets

1
Department of Pharmacology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117600, Singapore
2
Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, Bradenton, FL 34211, USA
3
Stem Cell and Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6102, Australia
4
Department of Science in Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 24 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(5), 611; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11050611
Received: 22 March 2019 / Revised: 22 April 2019 / Accepted: 28 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Natural Bioactive Compounds in the Rise and Fall of Cancers)
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Abstract

Formononetin, an isoflavone, is extracted from various medicinal plants and herbs, including the red clover (Trifolium pratense) and Chinese medicinal plant Astragalus membranaceus. Formononetin’s antioxidant and neuroprotective effects underscore its therapeutic use against Alzheimer’s disease. Formononetin has been under intense investigation for the past decade as strong evidence on promoting apoptosis and against proliferation suggests for its use as an anticancer agent against diverse cancers. These anticancer properties are observed in multiple cancer cell models, including breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer. Formononetin also attenuates metastasis and tumor growth in various in vivo studies. The beneficial effects exuded by formononetin can be attributed to its antiproliferative and cell cycle arrest inducing properties. Formononetin regulates various transcription factors and growth-factor-mediated oncogenic pathways, consequently alleviating the possible causes of chronic inflammation that are linked to cancer survival of neoplastic cells and their resistance against chemotherapy. As such, this review summarizes and critically analyzes current evidence on the potential of formononetin for therapy of various malignancies with special emphasis on molecular targets. View Full-Text
Keywords: formononetin; cancer; preclinical models; cell signaling; angiogenesis formononetin; cancer; preclinical models; cell signaling; angiogenesis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ong, S.K.L.; Shanmugam, M.K.; Fan, L.; Fraser, S.E.; Arfuso, F.; Ahn, K.S.; Sethi, G.; Bishayee, A. Focus on Formononetin: Anticancer Potential and Molecular Targets. Cancers 2019, 11, 611.

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