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Cancers 2019, 11(3), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11030326

Role of miRNAs in Melanoma Metastasis

Department of Molecular Biology of Cancer, Medical University of Lodz, 6/8 Mazowiecka Street, 92-215 Lodz, Poland
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Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 2 March 2019 / Published: 7 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA-Associated Cancer Metastasis)
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Abstract

Tumour metastasis is a multistep process. Melanoma is a highly aggressive cancer and metastasis accounts for the majority of patient deaths. microRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that affect the expression of their target genes. When aberrantly expressed they contribute to the development of melanoma. While miRNAs can act locally in the cell where they are synthesized, they can also influence the phenotype of neighboring melanoma cells or execute their function in the direct tumour microenvironment by modulating ECM (extracellular matrix) and the activity of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and immune cells. miRNAs are involved in all stages of melanoma metastasis, including intravasation into the lumina of vessels, survival during circulation in cardiovascular or lymphatic systems, extravasation, and formation of the pre-metastatic niche in distant organs. miRNAs contribute to metabolic alterations that provide a selective advantage during melanoma progression. They play an important role in the development of drug resistance, including resistance to targeted therapies and immunotherapies. Distinct profiles of miRNA expression are detected at each step of melanoma development. Since miRNAs can be detected in liquid biopsies, they are considered biomarkers of early disease stages or response to treatment. This review summarizes recent findings regarding the role of miRNAs in melanoma metastasis. View Full-Text
Keywords: miRNA; exosomes; melanoma; metastasis; drug resistance; pre-metastatic niche; invasion miRNA; exosomes; melanoma; metastasis; drug resistance; pre-metastatic niche; invasion
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Gajos-Michniewicz, A.; Czyz, M. Role of miRNAs in Melanoma Metastasis. Cancers 2019, 11, 326.

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