Role of miRNAs in Melanoma Metastasis
AbstractTumour metastasis is a multistep process. Melanoma is a highly aggressive cancer and metastasis accounts for the majority of patient deaths. microRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that affect the expression of their target genes. When aberrantly expressed they contribute to the development of melanoma. While miRNAs can act locally in the cell where they are synthesized, they can also influence the phenotype of neighboring melanoma cells or execute their function in the direct tumour microenvironment by modulating ECM (extracellular matrix) and the activity of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and immune cells. miRNAs are involved in all stages of melanoma metastasis, including intravasation into the lumina of vessels, survival during circulation in cardiovascular or lymphatic systems, extravasation, and formation of the pre-metastatic niche in distant organs. miRNAs contribute to metabolic alterations that provide a selective advantage during melanoma progression. They play an important role in the development of drug resistance, including resistance to targeted therapies and immunotherapies. Distinct profiles of miRNA expression are detected at each step of melanoma development. Since miRNAs can be detected in liquid biopsies, they are considered biomarkers of early disease stages or response to treatment. This review summarizes recent findings regarding the role of miRNAs in melanoma metastasis. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Gajos-Michniewicz, A.; Czyz, M. Role of miRNAs in Melanoma Metastasis. Cancers 2019, 11, 326.
Gajos-Michniewicz A, Czyz M. Role of miRNAs in Melanoma Metastasis. Cancers. 2019; 11(3):326.Chicago/Turabian Style
Gajos-Michniewicz, Anna; Czyz, Malgorzata. 2019. "Role of miRNAs in Melanoma Metastasis." Cancers 11, no. 3: 326.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.