Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Gene Regulation by Antitumor miR-204-5p in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: The Clinical Significance of Direct RACGAP1 Regulation
Previous Article in Journal
Impact of Overdiagnosis on Long-Term Breast Cancer Survival
Previous Article in Special Issue
MicroRNA in Lung Cancer Metastasis
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Cancers 2019, 11(3), 326;

Role of miRNAs in Melanoma Metastasis

Department of Molecular Biology of Cancer, Medical University of Lodz, 6/8 Mazowiecka Street, 92-215 Lodz, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 2 March 2019 / Published: 7 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA-Associated Cancer Metastasis)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1321 KB, uploaded 7 March 2019]   |  


Tumour metastasis is a multistep process. Melanoma is a highly aggressive cancer and metastasis accounts for the majority of patient deaths. microRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that affect the expression of their target genes. When aberrantly expressed they contribute to the development of melanoma. While miRNAs can act locally in the cell where they are synthesized, they can also influence the phenotype of neighboring melanoma cells or execute their function in the direct tumour microenvironment by modulating ECM (extracellular matrix) and the activity of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and immune cells. miRNAs are involved in all stages of melanoma metastasis, including intravasation into the lumina of vessels, survival during circulation in cardiovascular or lymphatic systems, extravasation, and formation of the pre-metastatic niche in distant organs. miRNAs contribute to metabolic alterations that provide a selective advantage during melanoma progression. They play an important role in the development of drug resistance, including resistance to targeted therapies and immunotherapies. Distinct profiles of miRNA expression are detected at each step of melanoma development. Since miRNAs can be detected in liquid biopsies, they are considered biomarkers of early disease stages or response to treatment. This review summarizes recent findings regarding the role of miRNAs in melanoma metastasis. View Full-Text
Keywords: miRNA; exosomes; melanoma; metastasis; drug resistance; pre-metastatic niche; invasion miRNA; exosomes; melanoma; metastasis; drug resistance; pre-metastatic niche; invasion

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gajos-Michniewicz, A.; Czyz, M. Role of miRNAs in Melanoma Metastasis. Cancers 2019, 11, 326.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Cancers EISSN 2072-6694 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top