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Cancers 2018, 10(8), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10080253

Antithrombotic Agents and Cancer

Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences and Center for Research on Aging and Translational Medicine (CeSI-MeT), “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti, 66100 Chieti, Italy
These authors contributed equally.
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Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 28 July 2018 / Published: 31 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Thrombosis and Haemostasis in Cancer)
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Abstract

Platelet activation is the first response to tissue damage and, if unrestrained, may promote chronic inflammation-related cancer, mainly through the release of soluble factors and vesicles that are rich in genetic materials and proteins. Platelets also sustain cancer cell invasion and metastasis formation by fostering the development of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype, cancer cell survival in the bloodstream and arrest/extravasation at the endothelium. Furthermore, platelets contribute to tumor escape from immune elimination. These findings provide the rationale for the use of antithrombotic agents in the prevention of cancer development and the reduction of metastatic spread and mortality. Among them, low-dose aspirin has been extensively evaluated in both preclinical and clinical studies. The lines of evidence have been considered appropriate to recommend the use of low-dose aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer by the USA. Preventive Services Task Force. However, two questions are still open: (i) the efficacy of aspirin as an anticancer agent shared by other antiplatelet agents, such as clopidogrel; (ii) the beneficial effect of aspirin improved at higher doses or by the co-administration of clopidogrel. This review discusses the latest updates regarding the mechanisms by which platelets promote cancer and the efficacy of antiplatelet agents. View Full-Text
Keywords: antiplatelet drugs; cancer; platelets; metastasis; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; immune surveillance antiplatelet drugs; cancer; platelets; metastasis; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; immune surveillance
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Bruno, A.; Dovizio, M.; Tacconelli, S.; Contursi, A.; Ballerini, P.; Patrignani, P. Antithrombotic Agents and Cancer. Cancers 2018, 10, 253.

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