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Micromachines 2018, 9(6), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9060306

Rapid Detection and Trapping of Extracellular Vesicles by Electrokinetic Concentration for Liquid Biopsy on Chip

1
Division of Engineering, New York University Abu Dhabi, PO Box 129188, Abu Dhabi, UAE
2
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, New York University Tandon School of Engineering, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract

Exosomes have gained immense importance since their proteomic and genetic contents could potentially be used for disease diagnostics, monitoring of cancer progression, metastasis, and drug efficacy. However, establishing the clinical utility of exosomes has been restricted due to small sizes and high sample loss from extensive sample preparation. Sample loss is particularly critical for body fluids limited in volume and difficult to access, e.g., cerebrospinal fluid. We present a microfluidic technique that locally enhances the concentration of extracellular vesicles extracted from MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines by using an ion concentration polarization (ICP)-based electrokinetic concentrator. Our design incorporates a trapping mechanism near the conductive polymer membrane; therefore, we can preconcentrate and capture extracellular vesicles simultaneously. Compared with standard fluorescence detection, our method increased the limit of detection (LOD) of extracellular vesicles by two orders of magnitude in 30 min. Our concentrator increased the extracellular vesicle concentration for 5.0 × 107 particles/1 mL (LOD), 5.0 × 108 particles/1 mL, and 5.0 × 109 particles/1 mL by ~100-fold each within 30 min using 45 V. This study demonstrates an alternative platform to simultaneously preconcentrate and capture extracellular vesicles that can be incorporated as part of a liquid biopsy-on-a-chip system for the detection of exosomal biomarkers and analysis of their contents for early cancer diagnosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicles; exosomes; biomarkers; liquid biopsy; electrokinetic concentration; ion concentration polarization extracellular vesicles; exosomes; biomarkers; liquid biopsy; electrokinetic concentration; ion concentration polarization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Cheung, L.S.; Sahloul, S.; Orozaliev, A.; Song, Y.-A. Rapid Detection and Trapping of Extracellular Vesicles by Electrokinetic Concentration for Liquid Biopsy on Chip. Micromachines 2018, 9, 306.

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