Cell-based impedance spectroscopy (CBI) is a powerful tool that uses the principles of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) by measuring changes in electrical impedance relative to a voltage applied to a cell layer. CBI provides a promising platform for the detection of several properties of cells including the adhesion, motility, proliferation, viability and metabolism of a cell culture. This review gives a brief overview of the theory, instrumentation, and detection principles of CBI. The recent applications of the technique are given in detail for research into cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, toxicology as well as its application to 2D and 3D in vitro cell cultures. CBI has been established as a biophysical marker to provide quantitative cellular information, which can readily be adapted for single-cell analysis to complement the existing biomarkers for clinical research on disease progression.
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