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Open AccessReview

Microfabrication of X-ray Optics by Metal Assisted Chemical Etching: A Review

by Lucia Romano 1,2,3,* and Marco Stampanoni 1,2
Institute for Biomedical Engineering, ETH Zürich, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland
Paul Scherrer Institut, Forschungsstrasse 111, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland
CNR-IMM, Department of Physics, University of Catania, 64 via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Micromachines 2020, 11(6), 589;
Received: 14 May 2020 / Revised: 8 June 2020 / Accepted: 10 June 2020 / Published: 12 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro- and Nano-Fabrication by Metal Assisted Chemical Etching)
High-aspect-ratio silicon micro- and nanostructures are technologically relevant in several applications, such as microelectronics, microelectromechanical systems, sensors, thermoelectric materials, battery anodes, solar cells, photonic devices, and X-ray optics. Microfabrication is usually achieved by dry-etch with reactive ions and KOH based wet-etch, metal assisted chemical etching (MacEtch) is emerging as a new etching technique that allows huge aspect ratio for feature size in the nanoscale. To date, a specialized review of MacEtch that considers both the fundamentals and X-ray optics applications is missing in the literature. This review aims to provide a comprehensive summary including: (i) fundamental mechanism; (ii) basics and roles to perform uniform etching in direction perpendicular to the <100> Si substrate; (iii) several examples of X-ray optics fabricated by MacEtch such as line gratings, circular gratings array, Fresnel zone plates, and other X-ray lenses; (iv) materials and methods for a full fabrication of absorbing gratings and the application in X-ray grating based interferometry; and (v) future perspectives of X-ray optics fabrication. The review provides researchers and engineers with an extensive and updated understanding of the principles and applications of MacEtch as a new technology for X-ray optics fabrication. View Full-Text
Keywords: X-ray grating interferometry; catalyst; silicon; gold electroplating X-ray grating interferometry; catalyst; silicon; gold electroplating
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MDPI and ACS Style

Romano, L.; Stampanoni, M. Microfabrication of X-ray Optics by Metal Assisted Chemical Etching: A Review. Micromachines 2020, 11, 589.

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