With the rapid developments of the Industrial Era 4.0, numerous sensors have been employed to facilitate and monitor the quality of machining processes. Among them, accelerometers play an important role in chatter detection and suppression for reducing the tool down-time and increasing manufacturing efficiency. To date, most commonly seen accelerometers have relatively large sizes such that they can be installed only on the housing of spindles or the surfaces of workpieces that may not be able to directly capture actual vibration signals or obstruct the cutting process. To address this challenge, this research proposed a compact, wide-bandwidth resonant accelerometer that could be embedded inside high-speed spindles for real-time chatter monitoring and prediction. Composed of a double-ended tuning fork (DETF), a proof mass, and a support beam, the resonant accelerometer utilizes the resonance frequency shift of the DETF due to the bending motions of the structure during out-of-plane accelerations as the sensing mechanism. The entire structure based on commercially available quartz tuning forks (QTFs) with electrodes for symmetric-mode excitations. The advantages of this structure include low noise and wide operation bandwidth thanks to the frequency modulation scheme. A theoretical model and finite element analysis were conducted for designs and optimizations. Simulated results demonstrated that the proposed accelerometer has a size of 9.76 mm × 4.8 mm × 5.5 mm, a simulated sensitivity of 0.94 Hz/g, and a simulated working bandwidth of 3.5 kHz. The research results are expected to be beneficial for chatter detection and intelligent manufacturing.
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