Since filament thermocouple is limited by its junction structure and dynamic characteristics, the actual heat conduction process cannot be reproduced during the transient thermal shock. In order to solve this problem, we established a thermocouple dynamic calibration system with laser pulse as excitation source to transform the problem of the restoring excitation source acting on the surface temperature of thermocouple junction into the problem of solving the one-dimensional (1D) inverse heat conduction process, proposed a two-layer domain filtering kernel regularization method for double conductors of thermocouple, analyzed the factors causing unstable two-layer domain solution, and solved the regular solution of two-layer domain by the filtering kernel regularization strategy. By laser narrow pulse calibration experiment, we obtained experimental samples of filament thermocouples with two kinds of junction structures, butt-welded and ball-welded; established error estimation criterion; and obtained the optimal filtering kernel parameters by the proposed regularization strategy, respectively. The regular solutions solved for different thermocouples were very close to the exact solution under the optimal strategy, indicating that the proposed regularization method can effectively approach the actual surface temperature of the thermocouple junction.
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