A variety of potential applications such as visible light communications require laser sources with a narrow linewidth and a single wavelength emission in the blue light region. The gallium nitride (GaN)-based distributed feedback laser diode (DFB-LD) is a promising light source that meets these requirements. Here, we present GaN DFB-LDs that share growth and fabrication processes and have surface gratings and sidewall gratings on the same epitaxial substrate, which makes LDs with different structures comparable. By electrical pulse pumping, single-peak emissions at 398.5 and 399.95 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 0.32 and 0.23 nm were achieved, respectively. The surface and sidewall gratings were fabricated alongside the p-contact metal stripe by electrical beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma etching. DFB LDs with 2.5 μm ridge width exhibit a smaller FWHM than those with 5 and 10 μm ridge widths, indicating that the narrow ridge width is favorable for the narrowing of the line width of the DFB LD. The slope efficiency of the DFB LD with sidewall gratings is higher than that of surface grating DFB LDs with the same ridge width and period of gratings. Our experiment may provide a reliable and simple approach for optimizing gratings and GaN DFB-LDs.
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