Next Article in Journal
Food-Borne Outbreak Investigation and Molecular Typing: High Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus Strains and Importance of Toxin Detection
Next Article in Special Issue
Individual and Combined Effects of Fumonisin B1, Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on the Hepatic and Renal Membrane Lipid Integrity of Rats
Previous Article in Journal
Secreted Phospholipases A2 from Animal Venoms in Pain and Analgesia
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effects of Continuously Feeding Diets Containing Cereal Ergot Alkaloids on Nutrient Digestibility, Alkaloid Recovery in Feces, and Performance Traits of Ram Lambs
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Toxins 2017, 9(12), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins9120408

Microbial Inhibition of Fusarium Pathogens and Biological Modification of Trichothecenes in Cereal Grains

1
Department of Entomology, Phytopathology and Molecular Diagnostics, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, ul. Prawocheńskiego 17, 10-720 Olsztyn, Poland
2
Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Production, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, pl. Łódzki 3, 10-724 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Understanding Mycotoxin Occurrence in Food and Feed Chains)
Full-Text   |   PDF [9000 KB, uploaded 20 December 2017]   |  

Abstract

Fungi of the genus Fusarium infect cereal crops during the growing season and cause head blight and other diseases. Their toxic secondary metabolites (mycotoxins) contaminate grains. Several dozen toxic compounds produced by fungal pathogens have been identified to date. Type B trichothecenes—deoxynivalenol, its acetyl derivatives and nivalenol (produced mainly by F. graminearum and F. culmorum)—are most commonly detected in cereal grains. “T-2 toxin” (produced by, among others, F. sporotrichioides) belongs to type-A trichothecenes which are more toxic than other trichothecenes. Antagonistic bacteria and fungi can affect pathogens of the genus Fusarium via different modes of action: direct (mycoparasitism or hyperparasitism), mixed-path (antibiotic secretion, production of lytic enzymes) and indirect (induction of host defense responses). Microbial modification of trichothecenes involves acetylation, deacetylation, oxidation, de-epoxidation, and epimerization, and it lowers the pathogenic potential of fungi of the genus Fusarium. Other modifing mechanisms described in the paper involve the physical adsorption of mycotoxins in bacterial cells and the conjugation of mycotoxins to glucose and other compounds in plant and fungal cells. The development of several patents supports the commercialization and wider application of microorganisms biodegrading mycotoxins in grains and, consequently, in feed additives. View Full-Text
Keywords: antagonistic bacteria; antagonistic fungi; biological control; biological modification of fusariotoxins; cereals antagonistic bacteria; antagonistic fungi; biological control; biological modification of fusariotoxins; cereals
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wachowska, U.; Packa, D.; Wiwart, M. Microbial Inhibition of Fusarium Pathogens and Biological Modification of Trichothecenes in Cereal Grains. Toxins 2017, 9, 408.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top