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Open AccessArticle

The Effect of Zearalenone on the Cytokine Environment, Oxidoreductive Balance and Metabolism in Porcine Ileal Peyer’s Patches

1
Department of Veterinary Prevention and Feed Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13/29, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland
2
Regional Veterinary Inspectorate in Gdańsk, Na Stoku 50, 80-958 Gdańsk, Poland
3
Department of Industrial and Food Microbiology, Faculty of Food Science, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Pl. Cieszyński 1, 10-726 Olsztyn, Poland
4
Department of Agroecosystems, Faculty of Environmental Management and Agriculture, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Pl. Łódzki 3, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(6), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12060350
Received: 17 April 2020 / Revised: 24 May 2020 / Accepted: 25 May 2020 / Published: 27 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins Occurence in Feed and Their Influence on Animal Health)
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of zearalenone (ZEN), administered per os to gilts at doses equivalent to 50%, 100%, and 150% of no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) values for 14, 28, and 42 days during weaning, on changes in the parameters of the oxidoreductive balance, cytokine secretion, and basal metabolism in ileal Payer’s patches. Immunoenzymatic ELISA tests and biochemical methods were used to measure the concentrations of interleukin 1α, interleukin 1β, interleukin 12/23p40, interleukin 2, interferon γ, interleukin 4, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 10, transforming growth factor β, malondialdehyde, sulfhydryl groups, fructose, glucose, and proline, as well as the activity of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. The study demonstrated that ZEN doses corresponding to 50%, 100%, and 150% of NOAEL values, i.e., 5 µg, 10 µg, and 15 µg ZEN/kg BW, respectively, have proinflammatory properties, exacerbate oxidative stress responses, and disrupt basal metabolism in ileal Payer’s patches in gilts. View Full-Text
Keywords: zearalenone; pre-pubertal gilts; GALT; oxidative stress; cytokine; metabolism zearalenone; pre-pubertal gilts; GALT; oxidative stress; cytokine; metabolism
MDPI and ACS Style

Obremski, K.; Trybowski, W.; Wojtacha, P.; Gajęcka, M.; Tyburski, J.; Zielonka, Ł. The Effect of Zearalenone on the Cytokine Environment, Oxidoreductive Balance and Metabolism in Porcine Ileal Peyer’s Patches. Toxins 2020, 12, 350.

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