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Bacterial Factors Targeting the Nucleus: The Growing Family of Nucleomodulins

Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, AgroParisTech, Micalis Institute, Epigenetics and Cellular Microbiology Team, F-78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(4), 220;
Received: 23 February 2020 / Revised: 23 March 2020 / Accepted: 29 March 2020 / Published: 31 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins and Virulence Factors of Listeria monocytogenes)
Pathogenic bacteria secrete a variety of proteins that manipulate host cell function by targeting components of the plasma membrane, cytosol, or organelles. In the last decade, several studies identified bacterial factors acting within the nucleus on gene expression or other nuclear processes, which has led to the emergence of a new family of effectors called “nucleomodulins”. In human and animal pathogens, Listeria monocytogenes for Gram-positive bacteria and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Legionella pneumophila, Shigella flexneri, and Escherichia coli for Gram-negative bacteria, have led to pioneering discoveries. In this review, we present these paradigms and detail various mechanisms and core elements (e.g., DNA, histones, epigenetic regulators, transcription or splicing factors, signaling proteins) targeted by nucleomodulins. We particularly focus on nucleomodulins interacting with epifactors, such as LntA of Listeria and ankyrin repeat- or tandem repeat-containing effectors of Rickettsiales, and nucleomodulins from various bacterial species acting as post-translational modification enzymes. The study of bacterial nucleomodulins not only generates important knowledge about the control of host responses by microbes but also creates new tools to decipher the dynamic regulations that occur in the nucleus. This research also has potential applications in the field of biotechnology. Finally, this raises questions about the epigenetic effects of infectious diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: pathogens; effectors; nucleomodulin; nucleus; Listeria; epigenetics pathogens; effectors; nucleomodulin; nucleus; Listeria; epigenetics
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Bierne, H.; Pourpre, R. Bacterial Factors Targeting the Nucleus: The Growing Family of Nucleomodulins. Toxins 2020, 12, 220.

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