Next Article in Journal
Effects of Nutrient Limitation on the Synthesis of N-Rich Phytoplankton Toxins: A Meta-Analysis
Next Article in Special Issue
Pathogenic Biohacking: Induction, Modulation and Subversion of Host Transcriptional Responses by Listeria monocytogenes
Previous Article in Journal
Plastics in Cyanobacterial Blooms—Genotoxic Effects of Binary Mixtures of Cylindrospermopsin and Bisphenols in HepG2 Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Production of Listeriolysin O and Subsequent Intracellular Infections by Listeria monocytogenes Are Regulated by Exogenous Short Chain Fatty Acid Mixtures
Open AccessReview

Bacterial Factors Targeting the Nucleus: The Growing Family of Nucleomodulins

Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, AgroParisTech, Micalis Institute, Epigenetics and Cellular Microbiology Team, F-78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(4), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12040220
Received: 23 February 2020 / Revised: 23 March 2020 / Accepted: 29 March 2020 / Published: 31 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins and Virulence Factors of Listeria monocytogenes)
Pathogenic bacteria secrete a variety of proteins that manipulate host cell function by targeting components of the plasma membrane, cytosol, or organelles. In the last decade, several studies identified bacterial factors acting within the nucleus on gene expression or other nuclear processes, which has led to the emergence of a new family of effectors called “nucleomodulins”. In human and animal pathogens, Listeria monocytogenes for Gram-positive bacteria and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Legionella pneumophila, Shigella flexneri, and Escherichia coli for Gram-negative bacteria, have led to pioneering discoveries. In this review, we present these paradigms and detail various mechanisms and core elements (e.g., DNA, histones, epigenetic regulators, transcription or splicing factors, signaling proteins) targeted by nucleomodulins. We particularly focus on nucleomodulins interacting with epifactors, such as LntA of Listeria and ankyrin repeat- or tandem repeat-containing effectors of Rickettsiales, and nucleomodulins from various bacterial species acting as post-translational modification enzymes. The study of bacterial nucleomodulins not only generates important knowledge about the control of host responses by microbes but also creates new tools to decipher the dynamic regulations that occur in the nucleus. This research also has potential applications in the field of biotechnology. Finally, this raises questions about the epigenetic effects of infectious diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: pathogens; effectors; nucleomodulin; nucleus; Listeria; epigenetics pathogens; effectors; nucleomodulin; nucleus; Listeria; epigenetics
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Bierne, H.; Pourpre, R. Bacterial Factors Targeting the Nucleus: The Growing Family of Nucleomodulins. Toxins 2020, 12, 220.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop