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Open AccessArticle

Plastics in Cyanobacterial Blooms—Genotoxic Effects of Binary Mixtures of Cylindrospermopsin and Bisphenols in HepG2 Cells

1
National Institute of Biology, Department of Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, Večna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3
Area of Toxicology, Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry Engineering, University Pablo de Olavide, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(4), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12040219
Received: 27 February 2020 / Revised: 26 March 2020 / Accepted: 27 March 2020 / Published: 31 March 2020
Ever-expanding environmental pollution is causing a rise in cyanobacterial blooms and the accumulation of plastics in water bodies. Consequently, exposure to mixtures of cyanotoxins and plastic-related contaminants such as bisphenols (BPs) is of increasing concern. The present study describes genotoxic effects induced by co-exposure to one of the emerging cyanotoxins—cylindrospermopsin (CYN)—(0.5 µg/mL) and BPs (bisphenol A (BPA), S (BPS), and F (BPF); (10 µg/mL)) in HepG2 cells after 24 and 72 h of exposure. The cytotoxicity was evaluated with an MTS assay and genotoxicity was assessed through the measurement of the induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) with the γH2AX assay. The deregulation of selected genes (xenobiotic metabolic enzyme genes, DNA damage, and oxidative response genes) was assessed using qPCR. The results showed a moderate reduction of cell viability and induction of DSBs after 72 h of exposure to the CYN/BPs mixtures and CYN alone. None of the BPs alone reduced cell viability or induced DSBs. No significant difference was observed between CYN and CYN/BPs exposed cells, except with CYN/BPA, where the antagonistic activity of BPA against CYN was indicated. The deregulation of some of the tested genes (CYP1A1, CDKN1A, GADD45A, and GCLC) was more pronounced after exposure to the CYN/BPs mixtures compared to single compounds, suggesting additive or synergistic action. The present study confirms the importance of co-exposure studies, as our results show pollutant mixtures to induce effects different from those confirmed for single compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: cylindrospermopsin; CYN; bisphenols; BPA; BPS; BPF; BPAF; co-exposure; genotoxicity; cytotoxicity cylindrospermopsin; CYN; bisphenols; BPA; BPS; BPF; BPAF; co-exposure; genotoxicity; cytotoxicity
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Hercog, K.; Štern, A.; Maisanaba, S.; Filipič, M.; Žegura, B. Plastics in Cyanobacterial Blooms—Genotoxic Effects of Binary Mixtures of Cylindrospermopsin and Bisphenols in HepG2 Cells. Toxins 2020, 12, 219.

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