Next Article in Journal
Plastics in Cyanobacterial Blooms—Genotoxic Effects of Binary Mixtures of Cylindrospermopsin and Bisphenols in HepG2 Cells
Next Article in Special Issue
Bacterial Factors Targeting the Nucleus: The Growing Family of Nucleomodulins
Previous Article in Journal
Nephrotoxic Effects in Zebrafish after Prolonged Exposure to Aristolochic Acid
Previous Article in Special Issue
Bacteriocins of Listeria monocytogenes and Their Potential as a Virulence Factor
Open AccessArticle

The Production of Listeriolysin O and Subsequent Intracellular Infections by Listeria monocytogenes Are Regulated by Exogenous Short Chain Fatty Acid Mixtures

Department of Biology, Integrative Science and Engineering Center, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(4), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12040218
Received: 27 February 2020 / Revised: 24 March 2020 / Accepted: 26 March 2020 / Published: 30 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins and Virulence Factors of Listeria monocytogenes)
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen capable of secreting listeriolysin O (LLO), a pore-forming toxin encoded by the hly gene. While the functions of LLO have been studied extensively, how the production of LLO is modulated by the intestinal environment, devoid of oxygen and enriched in short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), is not completely understood. Using L. monocytogenes strain 10403s, we found that hly transcription was moderately decreased by aerobic SCFA exposures but significantly increased by anaerobic SCFA exposures. Moreover, aerobic, but not anaerobic, exposure to low levels of SCFAs resulted in a significantly higher LLO activity. These results demonstrated that transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations of LLO production were separately modulated by SCFAs and were responsive to oxygen levels. Examining isogenic mutants revealed that PrfA and SigB play a role in regulating LLO production in response to SCFAs. Effects of SCFAs were also present in the cardiotropic strain 07PF0776 but distinctly different from those in strain 10403s. For both strains, prior exposures to SCFAs altered intracellular infections in Caco-2 and RAW264.7 cells and the plaque sizes in L fibroblasts, a result confirming the ability of L. monocytogenes to adapt to SCFAs in ways that impact its subsequent infection outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes; LLO; short chain fatty acids; hly; aerobic; anaerobic Listeria monocytogenes; LLO; short chain fatty acids; hly; aerobic; anaerobic
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Rinehart, E.; Chapman, J.; Sun, Y. The Production of Listeriolysin O and Subsequent Intracellular Infections by Listeria monocytogenes Are Regulated by Exogenous Short Chain Fatty Acid Mixtures. Toxins 2020, 12, 218.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop