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Open AccessArticle

Snake C-Type Lectins Potentially Contribute to the Prey Immobilization in Protobothrops mucrosquamatus and Trimeresurus stejnegeri Venoms

by Huiwen Tian 1,†, Ming Liu 2,†, Jiameng Li 1,†, Runjia Xu 3,‡, Chengbo Long 3,‡, Hao Li 3,4,‡, James Mwangi 3,4,5,‡, Qiumin Lu 3,*,‡, Ren Lai 1,3,5,*,‡ and Chuanbin Shen 3,*,‡
1
Life Sciences College of Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, China
2
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230027, Hefei, China
3
Key Laboratory of bioactive peptides of Yunnan Province/Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Kunming 650223, Yunnan, China
4
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100009, China
5
Sino African Joint Research Center, CAS, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Kunming 650223, Yunnan, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
KIZ /CUHK Joint Laboratory of Bioresources and Molecular Research in Common Diseases, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, Yunnan, China.
Toxins 2020, 12(2), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12020105
Received: 30 December 2019 / Revised: 31 January 2020 / Accepted: 2 February 2020 / Published: 6 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Venoms and Their Components: Molecular Mechanisms of Action)
Snake venoms contain components selected to immobilize prey. The venoms from Elapidae mainly contain neurotoxins, which are critical for rapid prey paralysis, while the venoms from Viperidae and Colubridae may contain fewer neurotoxins but are likely to induce circulatory disorders. Here, we show that the venoms from Protobothrops mucrosquamatus and Trimeresurus stejnegeri are comparable to those of Naja atra in prey immobilization. Further studies indicate that snake C-type lectin-like proteins (snaclecs), which are one of the main nonenzymatic components in viper venoms, are responsible for rapid prey immobilization. Snaclecs (mucetin and stejnulxin) from the venoms of P. mucrosquamatus and T. stejnegeri induce the aggregation of both mammalian platelets and avian thrombocytes, leading to acute cerebral ischemia, and reduced animal locomotor activity and exploration in the open field test. Viper venoms in the absence of snaclecs fail to aggregate platelets and thrombocytes, and thus show an attenuated ability to cause cerebral ischemia and immobilization of their prey. This work provides novel insights into the prey immobilization mechanism of Viperidae snakes and the understanding of viper envenomation-induced cerebral infarction.
Keywords: snake venom; C-type lectin-like proteins; snaclecs; platelet and thrombocyte; cerebral ischemia; locomotor activity snake venom; C-type lectin-like proteins; snaclecs; platelet and thrombocyte; cerebral ischemia; locomotor activity
MDPI and ACS Style

Tian, H.; Liu, M.; Li, J.; Xu, R.; Long, C.; Li, H.; Mwangi, J.; Lu, Q.; Lai, R.; Shen, C. Snake C-Type Lectins Potentially Contribute to the Prey Immobilization in Protobothrops mucrosquamatus and Trimeresurus stejnegeri Venoms. Toxins 2020, 12, 105.

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