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Interleukin-1 Receptor-Induced Nitric Oxide Production in the Pancreas Controls Hyperglycemia Caused by Scorpion Envenomation

1
Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 14040-903, Brazil
2
Departamento de Patologia e Medicina Legal, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo 14049-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(3), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12030163 (registering DOI)
Received: 5 February 2020 / Revised: 28 February 2020 / Accepted: 3 March 2020 / Published: 5 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Venoms and Their Components: Molecular Mechanisms of Action)
Tityus serrulatus causes numerous scorpion envenomation accidents and deaths worldwide. The symptoms vary from local to systemic manifestations, culminating in pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock. Among these events, transitory hyperglycemia is a severe manifestation that influences pulmonary edema, hemodynamic alterations, and cardiac disturbances. However, the molecular mechanism that leads to increased glucose levels after T. serrulatus envenomation remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate our hypothesis that hyperglycemia due to scorpion envenomation involves inflammatory signaling in the pancreas. The present study showed that T. serrulatus venom induces the production of IL-1α and IL-1β in the pancreas, which signal via IL-1R and provoke nitric oxide (NO) production as well as edema in β-cells in islets. Il1r1−/− mice were protected from transitory hyperglycemia and did not present disturbances in insulin levels in the serum. These results suggest that the pathway driven by IL-1α/IL-1β-IL-1R-NO inhibits insulin release by β-cells, which increases systemic glucose concentration during severe scorpion envenomation. A supportive therapy that inhibits NO production, combined with antiserum, may help to prevent fatal outcomes of scorpion envenomation. Our findings provide novel insights into the design of supportive therapy with NO inhibitors combined with antiscorpion venom serum to overcome fatal outcomes of scorpion envenomation. View Full-Text
Keywords: scorpion venom; nitric oxide; hyperglycemia; inflammation; pancreas scorpion venom; nitric oxide; hyperglycemia; inflammation; pancreas
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Reis, M.B.; Elias-Oliveira, J.; Pastore, M.R.; Ramos, S.G.; Gardinassi, L.G.; Faccioli, L.H. Interleukin-1 Receptor-Induced Nitric Oxide Production in the Pancreas Controls Hyperglycemia Caused by Scorpion Envenomation. Toxins 2020, 12, 163.

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